Hong Kong – Wikipedia

City and special administrative region of China

especial administrative region in China
Hong Kong ( ; Chinese : 香港, yue : [ hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ ] ( ) ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China ( HKSAR ), [ d ] is a city and particular administrative area of China on the eastern Pearl River Delta in South China. With over 7.5 million residents of diverse nationalities [ e ] in a 1,104-square-kilometre ( 426 sq mi ) territory, Hong Kong is one of the most dumbly populate places in the global. Hong Kong is besides one of the three ball-shaped fiscal centres and one of the most developed cities in the populace.

Hong Kong was established as a colony of the british empire after the Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island from Xin’an County at the end of the First Opium War in 1841 then again in 1842. [ 17 ] The colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the second Opium War and was far extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] british Hong Kong was occupied by Imperial Japan from 1941 to 1945 during World War II ; british administration resumed after the surrender of Japan. [ 20 ] The hale district was transferred to China in 1997. [ 21 ] As one of China ‘s two special administrative regions ( the early being Macau ), Hong Kong maintains separate govern and economic systems from that of mainland China under the principle of “ one state, two systems “. [ 22 ] [ f ] in the first place a sparsely populate sphere of farming and fish villages, [ 17 ] the district has become one of the world ‘s most significant fiscal centres and commercial ports. [ 23 ] It is the world ‘s tenth-largest exporter and ninth-largest importer. [ 24 ] [ 25 ] Hong Kong has a major capitalist service economy characterised by low tax income and free trade, and its currency, the Hong Kong dollar, is the eighth most trade currency in the earth. [ 26 ] Hong Kong is home to the third-highest number of billionaires of any city in the global, [ 27 ] the second-highest numeral of billionaires of any city in Asia, and the largest concentration of extremist high-net-worth individuals of any city in the worldly concern. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] Although the city has one of the highest per caput incomes in the universe, austere income inequality exists among the population. [ 30 ] Hong Kong is a highly develop territory and ranks fourth on the UN Human Development Index. [ 31 ] The city has the largest numeral of skyscrapers of any city in the global, [ 32 ] and its residents have some of the highest life expectancies in the populace. [ 31 ] The dense space has led to a highly modernize transportation system network with populace enchant rates exceeding 90 %. [ 33 ] Hong Kong is rate 3rd in the Global Financial Centres Index. [ 34 ]


The name of the district, beginning romanised as “ He-Ong-Kong ” in 1780, [ 37 ] primitively referred to a small inlet located between Aberdeen Island and the southern seashore of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial bespeak of contact between british sailors and local anesthetic fishermen. [ 38 ] Although the reservoir of the romanize appoint is unknown, it is by and large believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the yue pronunciation hēung góng, or Tanka Cantonese. The appoint translates as “ fragrant harbor ” or “ infuriate harbor ”. [ 35 ] [ 36 ] [ 39 ] “ Fragrant ” may refer to the odoriferous taste of the harbor ‘s fresh water inflow from the Pearl River or to the olfactory property from incense factories lining the seashore of northerly Kowloon. The cense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export before Victoria Harbour was developed. [ 39 ] Sir John Davis ( the second base colonial governor ) offered an option origin ; Davis said that the name derived from “ Hoong-keang ” ( “ crimson downpour ” ), reflecting the color of dirty over which a waterfall on the island flowed. [ 40 ] The simplified name Hong Kong was frequently used by 1810. [ 41 ] The identify was besides normally written as the single give voice Hongkong until 1926, when the government formally adopted the two-word identify. [ 42 ] Some corporations founded during the early colonial era placid keep this list, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric Company, Hongkong and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation ( HSBC ). [ 43 ] [ 44 ]


prehistory and Imperial China

Earliest known human traces in what is now Hong Kong are dated by some to 35,000 and 39,000 years ago during the Paleolithic menstruation. The claim is based on an archaeological probe in Wong Tei Tung, Sai Kung in 2003. The archaeological works revealed knapped rock tools from deposits that were dated using ocular luminescence dating. [ 45 ] During the Middle Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago, the area had been widely occupied by humans. [ 46 ] Neolithic to Bronze Age Hong Kong settlers were semi-coastal people. early inhabitants are believed to be Austronesians in the Middle Neolithic period and late the Yueh people. [ 46 ] As hinted by the archaeological works in Sha Ha, Sai Kung, rice cultivation had been introduced since late Neolithic period. [ 47 ] Bronze Age Hong Kong was featured with coarse pottery, hard pottery, quartz glass and stone jewelry, angstrom well as small bronze implements. [ 46 ] The Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong sphere into China for the foremost prison term in 214 BCE, after conquering the autochthonal Baiyue. [ 48 ] The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom ( a harbinger country of Vietnam ) after the Qin collapse [ 49 ] and recaptured by China after the Han conquest. [ 50 ] During the Mongol conquest of China in the thirteenth century, the Southern Song court was briefly located in contemporary Kowloon City ( the Sung Wong Toi locate ) before its concluding frustration in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. [ 51 ] By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty. [ 52 ] The earliest european visitor was portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. [ 53 ] [ 54 ] portuguese merchants established a trade post called Tamão in Hong Kong waters and began regular trade with southerly China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, [ 55 ] Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were re-established by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. [ 56 ] After the Qing conquest, maritime craft was banned under the Haijin policies. From 1661 to 1683, the population of most of the area forming introduce day Hong Kong was cleared under the Great Clearance, turning the area into a barren. [ 57 ] The Kangxi Emperor lifted the maritime trade prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter chinese ports in 1684. [ 58 ] Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate deal more rigorously, restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton. [ 59 ] Although european demand for chinese commodities like tea, silk, and porcelain was high, chinese interest in european manufactured goods was insignificant, so that taiwanese goods could lone be bought with cute metals. To reduce the trade asymmetry, the british sold big amounts of amerind opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever more aggressive actions to halt the opium deal. [ 60 ]

british colony

In 1839, the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium and ordered imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium barter. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, [ 61 ] triggering a british military reply and the First Opium War. The Qing surrendered early in the war and ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. british forces began controlling Hong Kong shortly after the sign of the conventionality, from 26 January 1841. [ 62 ] however, both countries were disgruntled and did not ratify the agreement. [ 63 ] After more than a class of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. [ 64 ] administrative infrastructure was promptly built by early 1842, but plagiarism, disease, and hostile Qing policies initially prevented the government from attracting commerce. Conditions on the island improved during the Taiping Rebellion in the 1850s, when many taiwanese refugees, including affluent merchants, fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colony. [ 17 ] Further tensions between the british and Qing over the opium trade wind escalated into the second Opium War. The Qing were again defeated and forced to give up Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutters Island in the Convention of Peking. [ 18 ] By the end of this war, Hong Kong had evolved from a transient colonial outpost into a major entrepôt. rapid economic improvement during the 1850s attracted foreign investment, as electric potential stakeholders became more confident in Hong Kong ‘s future. [ 65 ]
The colony was further expanded in 1898 when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories. [ 19 ] The University of Hong Kong was established in 1911 as the district ‘s first base institution of higher education. [ 66 ] Kai Tak Airport began operation in 1924, and the colony avoided a prolong economic downturn after the 1925–26 Canton–Hong Kong strike. [ 67 ] [ 68 ] At the start of the second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, Governor Geoffry Northcote declared Hong Kong a neutral zone to safeguard its condition as a exempt port. [ 69 ] The colonial government prepared for a possible attack, evacuating all british women and children in 1940. [ 70 ] The Imperial japanese Army attacked Hong Kong on 8 December 1941, the same dawn as its attack on Pearl Harbor. [ 71 ] Hong Kong was occupied by Japan for about four years ahead Britain resumed dominance on 30 August 1945. [ 72 ] Its population rebounded quickly after the war, as skilled chinese migrants fled from the Chinese Civil War and more refugees crossed the molding when the Chinese Communist Party took control of mainland China in 1949. [ 73 ] Hong Kong became the inaugural of the Four Asian Tiger economies to industrialise during the 1950s. [ 74 ] With a quickly increasing population, the colonial government began reforms to improve infrastructure and populace services. The public-housing estate of the realm program, Independent Commission Against Corruption, and Mass Transit Railway were all established during the post-war decades to provide safer caparison, integrity in the civil service, and more authentic transportation. [ 75 ] [ 76 ] Although the territory ‘s competitiveness in manufacturing gradually declined because of rising parturiency and property costs, it transitioned to a service-based economy. By the early 1990s, Hong Kong had established itself as a ball-shaped fiscal center and ship hub. [ 77 ]

chinese limited administrative region

The colony faced an uncertain future as the end of the New Territories lease approached, and Governor Murray MacLehose raised the question of Hong Kong ‘s condition with Deng Xiaoping in 1979. [ 78 ] Diplomatic negotiations with China resulted in the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration, in which the United Kingdom agreed to transfer the colony in 1997 and China would guarantee Hong Kong ‘s economic and political systems for 50 years after the transfer. [ 79 ] The impending transportation triggered a wave of batch emigration as residents feared an corrosion of civil rights, the rule of law, and quality of life sentence. [ 80 ] Over half a million people left the district during the acme migration period, from 1987 to 1996. [ 81 ] The legislative Council became a in full elected legislature for the first time in 1995 and extensively expanded its functions and organisations throughout the last years of the colonial dominion. [ 82 ] Hong Kong was transferred to China on 1 July 1997, after 156 years of british rule. [ 21 ] immediately after the transfer, Hong Kong was sternly affected by respective crises. The government was forced to use solid foreign exchange reserves to maintain the Hong Kong dollar ‘s currentness peg during the 1997 asian fiscal crisis, [ 73 ] and the recovery from this was muted by an H5N1 avian-flu outbreak [ 83 ] and a house excess. [ 84 ] This was followed by the 2003 SARS epidemic, during which the territory experienced its most good economic downturn. [ 85 ] political debates after the transfer of sovereignty have centred around the region ‘s democratic development and the central government ‘s attachment to the “ one country, two systems ” principle. After reversal of the last colonial era Legislative Council democratic reforms following the handover, [ 86 ] the regional government unsuccessfully attempted to enact national security legislation pursuant to Article 23 of the Basic Law. [ 87 ] The cardinal government decision to implement campaigner pre-screening before allowing head administrator elections triggered a series of protests in 2014 which became known as the Umbrella Revolution. [ 88 ] Discrepancies in the electoral register and disqualification of elect legislators after the 2016 Legislative Council elections [ 89 ] [ 90 ] [ 91 ] and enforcement of national law in the West Kowloon high-speed railroad track station raised farther concerns about the region ‘s autonomy. [ 92 ] In June 2019, bulk protests erupted in reaction to a proposed extradition amendment bill permitting extradition of fugitives to Taiwan, while protesters argued that criminals might be extradited to mainland China. The protests are the largest in Hong Kong history, [ 93 ] with organisers claiming to have attracted more than three million Hong Kong residents .

Government and politics

Hong Kong is a special administrative region of China, with executive, legislative, and judicial powers devolved from the home government. [ 94 ] The Sino-British Joint Declaration provided for economic and administrative continuity through the transfer of reign, [ 79 ] resulting in an executive-led govern organization largely inherited from the territory ‘s history as a british colony. [ 95 ] Under these terms and the “ one country, two systems ” principle, the Basic Law of Hong Kong is the regional constitution. [ 96 ] The regional government is composed of three branches :
The headman executive is the oral sex of politics and serves for a maximum of two five-year terms. The State Council ( led by the Premier of China ) appoints the headman executive after nomination by the Election Committee, which is composed of 1,200 business, community, and government leaders. [ 104 ] [ 105 ] [ 106 ] The Legislative Council has 70 members, each serving a four-year term. [ 107 ] thirty-five are directly elected from geographic constituencies, and thirty-five represent running constituencies ( FC ). Thirty FC councillors are selected from limited electorates representing sectors of the economy or special interest groups, [ 108 ] and the remaining five members are nominated from sitting zone council members and selected in region-wide double send elections. [ 109 ] All popularly elected members are chosen by proportional representation. The 30 limited electorate functional constituencies fill their seats using first-past-the-post or instant-runoff vote. [ 108 ] twenty-two political parties had representatives elected to the Legislative Council in the 2016 election. [ 110 ] These parties have aligned themselves into three ideological groups : the pro-Beijing camp ( the current government ), the pro-democracy camp, and localist groups. [ 111 ] The Chinese Communist Party does not have an official political bearing in Hong Kong, and its members do not run in local anesthetic elections. [ 112 ] Hong Kong is represented in the National People ‘s Congress by 36 deputies chosen through an electoral college and 203 delegates in the chinese People ‘s Political Consultative Conference appointed by the central government. [ 8 ]
chinese national law does not broadly apply in the region, and Hong Kong is treated as a separate jurisdiction. [ 102 ] Its judicial organization is based on coarse law, continuing the legal tradition established during british rule. [ 113 ] local anesthetic courts may refer to precedents set in English jurisprudence and overseas jurisprudence. [ 114 ] however, mainland condemnable operation law applies to cases investigated by the Office for Safeguarding National Security of the CPG in the HKSAR. [ 115 ] Interpretative and amending baron over the Basic Law and legal power over acts of state of matter lie with the central authority, making regional courts ultimately subordinate to the mainland ‘s socialistic civil law system. [ 116 ] Decisions made by the Standing Committee of the National People ‘s Congress override any territorial judicial summons. [ 117 ] Furthermore, in circumstances where the Standing Committee declares a express of emergency in Hong Kong, the State Council may enforce national law in the region. [ 118 ] The territory ‘s jurisdictional independence is most apparent in its immigration and tax income policies. The Immigration Department issues passports for permanent residents which differ from those of the mainland or Macau, [ 119 ] and the region maintains a regulated molding with the rest of the area. All travellers between Hong Kong and China and Macau must pass through boundary line controls, regardless of nationality. [ 120 ] Mainland Chinese citizens do not have right of digest in Hong Kong and are national to immigration controls. [ 121 ] Public finances are handled individually from the home government ; taxes levied in Hong Kong do not fund the central authority. [ 122 ] [ 123 ] The Hong Kong Garrison of the People ‘s Liberation Army is responsible for the area ‘s defense. [ 124 ] Although the Chairman of the Central Military Commission is supreme commander of the armed forces, [ 125 ] the regional government may request aid from the garrison. [ 126 ] Hong Kong residents are not required to perform military service, and stream jurisprudence has no provision for local enlistment, so its defense is composed wholly of non-Hongkongers. [ 127 ] The central government and Ministry of Foreign Affairs handle diplomatic matters, but Hong Kong retains the ability to maintain distinguish economic and cultural relations with alien nations. [ 128 ] The territory actively participates in the World Trade Organization, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the International Olympic Committee, and many United Nations agencies. [ 129 ] [ 130 ] [ 131 ] The regional government maintains trade offices in Greater China and early nations. [ 132 ] The imposition of Hong Kong national security police by the cardinal government in Beijing in June 2020 resulted in the suspension of bilateral extradition treaties by the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Finland, and Ireland. [ 133 ] The United States ended its discriminatory economic and craft treatment of Hong Kong in July 2020 because it was nobelium longer able to distinguish Hong Kong as a separate entity from the People ‘s Republic of China. [ 133 ] [ 134 ]

administrative divisions

The territory is divided into 18 districts, each represented by a district council. These advise the government on local issues such as public facility provision, community program maintenance, cultural promotion, and environmental policy. There are a sum of 479 zone council seats, 452 of which are directly elected. [ 135 ] Rural committee chairmen, representing outlying villages and towns, fill the 27 non-elected seats. [ 136 ]
The main territory of Hong Kong consists of a peninsula bordered to the north by Guangdong province, an island to the south east of the peninsula, and a smaller island to the south. These areas are surrounded by numerous much smaller islands.

political reforms and sociopolitical issues

Hong Kong is governed by a hybrid government that is not in full representative of the population. legislative Council members elected by functional constituencies composed of professional and special interest groups are accountable to these constrict corporate electorates and not the general public. This electoral arrangement has guaranteed a pro-establishment majority in the legislature since the transmit of reign. similarly, the headman executive is selected by establishment politicians and bodied members of the Election Committee quite than immediately elected. [ 137 ] Although universal right to vote for the chief executive and all Legislative Council elections are define goals of Basic Law Articles 45 and 68, [ 138 ] the legislature is entirely partially directly elected, and the executive continues to be nominated by an unrepresentative soundbox. [ 137 ] The government has been repeatedly petitioned to introduce direct elections for these positions. [ 139 ] [ 140 ] cultural minorities ( except those of european lineage ) have fringy representation in politics and frequently experience discrimination in house, education, and employment. [ 141 ] [ 142 ] Employment vacancies and public avail appointments frequently have speech requirements which minority job seekers do not meet, and speech education resources remain inadequate for taiwanese learners. [ 143 ] [ 144 ] Foreign domestic helpers, predominantly women from the Philippines and Indonesia, have small auspices under regional law. Although they live and work in Hong Kong, these workers are not treated as ordinary residents and are ineligible for right of bide in the territory. [ 145 ] Sex traffic in Hong Kong is an return. Hongkonger and alien women and girls are forced into prostitution in brothels, homes, and businesses in the city. [ 146 ] [ 147 ] [ 148 ] [ 149 ] The Joint Declaration guarantees the Basic Law of Hong Kong for 50 years after the remove of sovereignty. [ 79 ] It does not specify how Hong Kong will be governed after 2047, and the central government ‘s role in determining the territory ‘s future system of politics is the national of political argument and guess. Hong Kong ‘s political and judicial systems may be integrated with China ‘s at that time, or the territory may continue to be administered individually. [ 150 ] [ 151 ] however, during a menstruation of large-scale protests in 2020, the Standing Committee of the National People ‘s Congress passed the controversial Hong Kong home security law. [ 152 ] The law criminalises acts that were previously considered protected speech under Hong Kong jurisprudence and establishes the Office for Safeguarding National Security of the CPG in the HKSAR, an fact-finding office under Central People ‘s Government authority immune from HKSAR jurisdiction. [ 115 ] [ 153 ] The United Kingdom considers the police to be a serious violation of the Joint Declaration. [ 154 ] In October 2020, Hong Kong police arrested seven pro- democracy politicians over tussles with pro-Beijing politicians during the Legislative Council in May. They were charged with contempt and interfering with members of the council, while none of the pro-Beijing lawmakers were detained. [ 155 ]


Satellite image showing areas of vegetation and conurbation. Areas of urban development and vegetation are visible in this satellite image. Hong Kong is on China ‘s southerly coast, 60 kilometer ( 37 mi ) east of Macau, on the east side of the mouthpiece of the Pearl River estuary. It is surrounded by the South China Sea on all sides except the north, which neighbours the Guangdong city of Shenzhen along the Sham Chun River. The territory ‘s 1,110.18 km2 ( 428.64 sq nautical mile ) [ 156 ] area ( 2754.97 km2 [ 156 ] if the maritime area is included ) consists of Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula, the New Territories, Lantau Island, and over 200 early islands. Of the total area, 1,073 km2 ( 414 sq michigan ) is land and 35 km2 ( 14 sq mile ) is water. [ 31 ] The territory ‘s highest point is Tai Mo Shan, 957 metres ( 3,140 foot ) above sea floor. [ 157 ] Urban development is concentrated on the Kowloon Peninsula, Hong Kong Island, and in new towns throughout the New Territories. [ 158 ] a lot of this is built on reclaim state ; 70 km2 ( 27 sq nautical mile ) ( 6 % of the sum land or about 25 % of developed space in the territory ) is reclaimed from the ocean. [ 159 ] Undeveloped terrain is cragged to mountainous, with identical little directly nation, and consists largely of grassland, forest, shrubland, or farmland. [ 160 ] [ 161 ] About 40 % of the remaining state area is country parks and nature reserves. [ 162 ] The territory has a divers ecosystem ; over 3,000 species of vascular plants occur in the region ( 300 of which are native to Hong Kong ), and thousands of insect, avian, and marine species. [ 163 ] [ 164 ]


Hong Kong has a humid subtropical climate ( Köppen Cwa ), characteristic of southerly China, despite being located south of the Tropic of Cancer. Summer is hot and humid, with periodic showers and thunderstorms and warm air from the southwest. Typhoons occur most frequently then, sometimes resulting in floods or landslides. Winters are balmy and normally sunny at the get down, becoming cloudy towards February ; an periodic cold front brings potent, cooling winds from the north. Autumn is the sunniest season, whilst spring is by and large cloudy. [ 165 ] When there is snow, which is extremely rare, it is normally at high elevations. Hong Kong averages 1,709 hours of sunlight per year. [ 166 ] Historic temperature extremes at the Hong Kong Observatory are 36.6 °C ( 97.9 °F ) on 22 August 2017 and 0.0 °C ( 32.0 °F ) on 18 January 1893. [ 167 ] The highest and lowest recorded temperatures in all of Hong Kong are 39.0 °C ( 102 °F ) at Wetland Park on 22 August 2017, [ 168 ] and −6.0 °C ( 21.2 °F ) at Tai Mo Shan on 24 January 2016. [ 169 ]

Climate data for Hong Kong (Hong Kong Observatory), normals 1991–2020,[g] extremes 1884–1939 and 1947–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.9
Mean maximum °C (°F) 24.0
Average high °C (°F) 18.7
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.5
Average low °C (°F) 14.6
Mean minimum °C (°F) 9.1
Record low °C (°F) 0.0
Average rainfall mm (inches) 33.2
Average rainy days ( ≥ 0.1 millimeter ) 5.70 7.97 10.50 11.37 15.37 19.33 18.43 17.50 14.90 7.83 5.70 5.30 139.90
Average relative humidity (%) 74 79 82 83 83 82 81 81 78 73 72 70 78
Mean monthly sunshine hours 145.8 101.7 100.0 113.2 138.8 144.3 197.3 182.1 174.4 197.8 172.3 161.6 1,829.3
Percent possible sunshine 43 32 27 30 34 36 48 46 47 55 52 48 41
Source: Hong Kong Observatory[170][171][172]

computer architecture

Hong Kong has the world ‘s largest number of skyscrapers, with 482 towers taller than 150 metres ( 490 foot ), [ 32 ] and the third-largest numeral of high-rise buildings in the world. [ 173 ] The lack of available quad restricted development to high-density residential tenements and commercial complexes packed closely together on buildable kingdom. [ 174 ] Single-family detached homes are rare and by and large only found in outlying areas. [ 175 ] The International Commerce Centre and Two International Finance Centre are the tallest buildings in Hong Kong and are among the tallest in the Asia-Pacific region. [ 176 ] other classifiable buildings lining the Hong Kong Island horizon include the HSBC Main Building, the anemometer -topped trilateral Central Plaza, the circular Hopewell Centre, and the sharp-edged Bank of China Tower. [ 177 ] [ 178 ] demand for modern structure has contributed to patronize destruction of older buildings, freeing distance for modern high-rises. [ 179 ] however, many examples of european and Lingnan architecture are even found throughout the territory. Older government buildings are examples of colonial architecture. The 1846 Flagstaff House, the former mansion of the command british military officer, is the oldest Western-style build in Hong Kong. [ 180 ] Some ( including the Court of Final Appeal Building and the Hong Kong Observatory ) retain their original function, and others have been adapted and reused ; the Former Marine Police Headquarters was redeveloped into a commercial and retail building complex, [ 181 ] and Béthanie ( built in 1875 as a bedlam ) houses the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts. [ 182 ] The Tin Hau Temple, dedicated to the ocean goddess Mazu ( in the first place built in 1012 and rebuilt in 1266 ), is the district ‘s oldest existent structure. [ 183 ] The Ping Shan Heritage Trail has architectural examples of respective imperial chinese dynasties, including the Tsui Sing Lau Pagoda ( Hong Kong ‘s lone remaining pagoda ). [ 184 ] Tong lau, mixed-use tenement buildings constructed during the colonial earned run average, blended southern chinese architectural styles with european influences. These were particularly fecund during the immediate post-war period, when many were quickly built to house big numbers of taiwanese migrants. [ 185 ] Examples include Lui Seng Chun, the Blue House in Wan Chai, and the Shanghai Street shophouses in Mong Kok. mass-produce public-housing estates, built since the 1960s, are chiefly constructed in modernist style. [ 186 ]
Skyline at night, with building lights reflected in water The Hong Kong Island skyline, viewed from the Victoria Harbour waterfront City opinion of Kowloon, Hong Kong Island, and the Hong Kong skyline


The Census and Statistics Department estimated Hong Kong ‘s population at 7,482,500 in mid-2019. The overpower majority ( 92 % ) is Han Chinese, [ 6 ] most of whom are Taishanese, Teochew, Hakka, and early yue peoples. [ 187 ] [ 188 ] [ 189 ] The remaining 8 % are non-ethnic chinese minorities, primarily Filipinos, Indonesians, and South Asians. [ 6 ] [ 190 ] however, most Filipinos and Indonesians in Hong Kong are short-run workers. According to a 2016 thematic report by the Hong Kong politics, after excluding foreign domestic helpers, the very number of non-Chinese heathen minorities in the city was 263,593, or 3.6 % of Hong Kong ‘s population. [ 191 ] About half the population have some form of british nationality, a bequest of colonial convention ; 3.4 million residents have british National ( Overseas ) condition, and 260,000 british citizens live in the territory. [ 192 ] The huge majority besides hold taiwanese nationality, automatically granted to all ethnic chinese residents at the transfer of sovereignty. [ 193 ] Headline population concentration of about 6,800 people/km2 does not reflect true densities since lone 6.9 % of down is residential ; the residential average population concentration calculates closer to a highly cramp 100,000/km2. [ original research? ] The prevailing terminology is yue, a diverseness of chinese originating in Guangdong. It is spoken by 94.6 % of the population, 88.9 % as a foremost lyric and 5.7 % as a second speech. [ 3 ] slenderly over half the population ( 53.2 % ) speaks english, the other official lyric ; [ 2 ] 4.3 % are native speakers, and 48.9 % talk English as a second language. [ 3 ] Code-switching, mixing english and yue in informal conversation, is common among the bilingual population. [ 194 ] Post-handover governments have promoted Mandarin, which is presently about deoxyadenosine monophosphate prevailing as English ; 48.6 % of the population speak Mandarin, with 1.9 % native speakers and 46.7 % as a second language. [ 3 ] Traditional chinese characters are used in writing, quite than the simplified characters used on the mainland. [ 195 ]
Among the religious population, the traditional “ three teachings “ of China, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism, have the most adherents ( 20 % ), followed by Christianity ( 12 % ) and Islam ( 4 % ). [ 196 ] Followers of early religions, including Sikhism, Hinduism, and Judaism, broadly originate from regions where their religion predominates. [ 196 ] Life anticipation in Hong Kong was 82.38 years for males and 88.17 years for females in 2022, the highest in the populace. [ 197 ] Cancer, pneumonia, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and accidents are the territory ‘s five leading causes of end. [ 198 ] The universal populace healthcare system is funded by general-tax gross, and treatment is highly subsidised ; on average, 95 % of healthcare costs are covered by the politics. [ 199 ] Income inequality has risen since the transfer of sovereignty, as the region ‘s ageing population has gradually added to the act of nonworking people. [ 200 ] Although median family income steadily increased during the decade to 2016, the wage gap remained high gear ; [ 201 ] the 90th percentile of earners receive 41 % of all income. [ 201 ] The city has the most billionaires per caput, with one billionaire per 109,657 people. [ 202 ] Despite government efforts to reduce the growing disparity, [ 203 ] median income for the top 10 % of earners is 44 times that of the bottom 10 %. [ 204 ] [ 205 ]


A proportional representation of Hong Kong exports, 2019 Hong Kong has a capitalist desegregate service economy, characterised by low tax, minimal politics grocery store treatment, and an established external fiscal market. [ 206 ] It is the world ‘s 35th-largest economy, with a nominal GDP of approximately US $ 373 billion. [ 12 ] Hong Kong ‘s economy has ranked at the top of the Heritage Foundation ‘s economic freedom index since 1995. [ 207 ] [ 208 ] The Hong Kong Stock Exchange is the seventh-largest in the universe, with a market capitalization of HK $ 30.4 trillion ( US $ 3.87 trillion ) as of December 2018. [ 209 ] Hong Kong is ranked as the 14th most advanced country in the Global Innovation Index in 2021. [ 210 ]

Hong Kong is the tenth-largest trade entity in exports and imports ( 2017 ), trading more goods in value than its gross domestic product. [ 24 ] [ 25 ] Over half of its cargo throughput consists of transshipments ( goods travelling through Hong Kong ). Products from mainland China explanation for about 40 % of that traffic. [ 211 ] The city ‘s localization allowed it to establish a department of transportation and logistics infrastructure which includes the worldly concern ‘s seventh-busiest container larboard [ 212 ] and the busiest airport for external cargo. [ 213 ] The district ‘s largest export markets are mainland China and the United States. [ 31 ] Hong Kong is contribution of the Maritime Silk Road that runs from the taiwanese coast via the Suez Canal to the Mediterranean, there to the Upper Adriatic region of Trieste with its rail connections to Central and Eastern Europe. [ 214 ] [ 215 ] [ 216 ] [ 217 ] [ 218 ] It has little arable land and few natural resources, importing most of its food and raw materials. More than 90 % of Hong Kong ‘s food is imported, including closely all of its kernel and rice. [ 219 ] Agricultural activity is 0.1 % of GDP and consists of growing premium food and flower varieties. [ 220 ] Although the district had one of Asia ‘s largest fabrication economies during the latter one-half of the colonial earned run average, Hong Kong ‘s economy is now dominated by the serve sector. The sector generates 92.7 % of economic output, with the public sector accounting for about 10 %. [ 221 ] Between 1961 and 1997 Hong Kong ‘s gross domestic product increased by a gene of 180, and per head GDP increased by a component of 87. [ 222 ] [ 223 ] The territory ‘s GDP relative to mainland China ‘s peaked at 27 % in 1993 ; it fell to less than 3 % in 2017, as the mainland developed and liberalised its economy. [ 224 ] Economic and infrastructure consolidation with China has increased importantly since the 1978 get down of grocery store liberalization on the mainland. Since resumption of cross-boundary train servicing in 1979, many rail and road links have been improved and constructed, facilitating trade between regions. [ 225 ] [ 226 ] The Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement formalised a policy of free deal between the two areas, with each jurisdiction pledging to remove remaining obstacles to trade and cross-boundary investment. [ 227 ] A similar economic partnership with Macau details the liberalization of deal between the limited administrative regions. [ 228 ] chinese companies have expanded their economic presence in the territory since the transfer of sovereignty. mainland firms represent over half of the Hang Seng Index value, up from 5 % in 1997. [ 229 ] [ 230 ]
As the mainland liberalised its economy, Hong Kong ‘s transport industry faced acute competition from other chinese ports. half of China ‘s barter goods were routed through Hong Kong in 1997, dropping to about 13 % by 2015. [ 231 ] The territory ‘s minimal tax, common jurisprudence system, and civil service attract overseas corporations wishing to establish a bearing in Asia. [ 231 ] The city has the second-highest phone number of bodied headquarters in the Asia-Pacific region. [ 232 ] Hong Kong is a gateway for alien direct investment in China, giving investors open access to mainland chinese markets through lead links with the Shanghai and Shenzhen lineage exchanges. The district was the first market outside mainland China for renminbi-denominated bonds, and is one of the largest hub for offshore renminbi trade. [ 233 ] In November 2020, Hong Kong ‘s Financial Services and the Treasury Bureau proposed a new law that will restrict cryptocurrency deal to professional investors entirely, leaving amateur traders ( 93 % of Hong Kong ‘s trade population ) out of the market. [ 234 ] The politics has had a passive role in the economy. colonial governments had little industrial policy and implemented about no barter controls. Under the doctrine of “ positive non-interventionism “, post-war administrations intentionally avoided the directly allotment of resources ; active intervention was considered damaging to economic growth. [ 235 ] While the economy transitioned to a service footing during the 1980s, [ 235 ] late colonial governments introduced interventionist policies. Post-handover administrations continued and expanded these programmes, including export-credit guarantees, a compulsory pension scheme, a minimal engage, anti-discrimination laws, and a submit mortgage angel. [ 236 ] tourism is a major character of the economy, accounting for 5 % of GDP. [ 181 ] In 2016, 26.6 million visitors contributed HK $ 258 billion ( US $ 32.9 billion ) to the territory, making Hong Kong the 14th most popular address for international tourists. It is the most democratic chinese city for tourists, receiving over 70 % more visitors than its closest rival ( Macau ). [ 237 ] The city is ranked as one of the most expensive cities for expatriates. [ 238 ] [ 239 ]


tape drive

Hong Kong has a highly developed, sophisticate transport network. Over 90 % of daily trips are made on public transportation, the highest percentage in the universe. [ 33 ] The Octopus card, a contactless ache requital card, is widely accepted on railways, buses and ferries, and can be used for payment in most retail stores. [ 240 ] The Peak Tram, Hong Kong ‘s first populace enchant system, has provided funicular rail enchant between Central and Victoria Peak since 1888. [ 241 ] The Central and Western District has an extensive system of escalators and moving pavements, including the Mid-Levels escalator ( the earth ‘s longest outdoor covered escalator arrangement ). [ 242 ] Hong Kong Tramways covers a parcel of Hong Kong Island. The Mass Transit Railway ( MTR ) is an across-the-board passenger rail network, connecting 93 metro stations throughout the district. [ 243 ] With a casual ridership of over five million, the system serves 41 % of all populace transit passengers in the city [ 244 ] and has an on-time rate of 99.9 %. [ 245 ] Cross-boundary prepare service to Shenzhen is offered by the East Rail line, and longer-distance inter-city trains to Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Beijing are operated from Hung Hom place. [ 246 ] Connecting servicing to the national high-speed fulminate system is provided at West Kowloon railroad track post. [ 247 ] Although populace transport systems handle most passenger traffic, there are over 500,000 private vehicles registered in Hong Kong. [ 248 ] Automobiles drive on the left ( unlike in mainland China ), because of historical determine of the british Empire. [ 249 ] Vehicle traffic is extremely congested in urban areas, exacerbated by restrict space to expand roads and an increasing number of vehicles. [ 250 ] More than 18,000 taxicabs, easily identifiable by their bright color, are licensed to carry riders in the territory. [ 251 ] Bus services operate more than 700 routes across the district, [ 244 ] with smaller public light buses ( besides known as minibuses ) serving areas standard buses do not reach as frequently or directly. [ 252 ] Highways, organised with the Hong Kong Strategic Route and Exit Number System, connect all major areas of the district. [ 253 ] The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge provides a direct route to the western english of the Pearl River estuary. [ 226 ]
Hong Kong International Airport is the territory ‘s chief airport. Over 100 airlines operate flights from the airport, including locally based Cathay Pacific ( flag carrier ), Hong Kong Airlines, low-cost airline HK Express and cargo airline Air Hong Kong. [ 254 ] It is the eighth-busiest airport by passenger traffic [ 255 ] and handles the most air-cargo traffic in the populace. [ 256 ] Most individual recreational air travel traffic flies through Shek Kong Airfield, under the supervision of the Hong Kong Aviation Club. [ 257 ] The Star Ferry operates two lines across Victoria Harbour for its 53,000 day by day passengers. [ 258 ] Ferries besides serve outlying islands inaccessible by other means. Smaller kai-to boats serve the most outside coastal settlements. [ 259 ] Ferry travel to Macau and mainland China is besides available. [ 260 ] Junks, once common in Hong Kong waters, are no longer widely available and are used privately and for tourism. [ 261 ]


Hong Kong generates most of its electricity locally. [ 262 ] The huge majority of this energy comes from fossil fuels, with 46 % from coal and 47 % from petroleum. [ 263 ] The lie is from other imports, including nuclear department of energy generated in mainland China. [ 264 ] renewable sources account for a negligible amount of energy generated for the territory. [ 265 ] small-scale wind-power sources have been developed, [ 262 ] and a small count of private homes and public buildings have installed solar panels. [ 266 ] With few natural lakes and rivers, high population concentration, inaccessible groundwater sources, and highly seasonal rain, the district does not have a dependable generator of fresh water. The Dongjiang River in Guangdong supplies 70 % of the city ‘s water, [ 267 ] and the remaining demand is filled by harvesting rain. [ 268 ] Toilets in most built-up areas of the territory sluice with seawater, greatly reducing fresh water habit. [ 267 ] Broadband Internet access is widely available, with 92.6 % of households connected. Connections over fiber-optic infrastructure are increasingly prevailing, [ 269 ] contributing to the high regional modal association speed of 21.9 Mbit/s ( the world ‘s fourth-fastest ). [ 270 ] Mobile-phone use is omnipresent ; [ 271 ] there are more than 18 million mobile-phone accounts, [ 272 ] more than bivalent the territory ‘s population .


Hong Kong is characterised as a loanblend of East and West. Traditional taiwanese values emphasising family and education blend with westerly ideals, including economic liberty and the rule of law. [ 273 ] Although the huge majority of the population is ethnically taiwanese, Hong Kong has developed a distinct identity. The territory diverged from the mainland through its long menstruation of colonial government and a different footstep of economic, social, and cultural development. mainstream culture is derived from immigrants originating from versatile parts of China. This was influenced by British-style education, a classify political system, and the territory ‘s rapid development during the late twentieth century. [ 274 ] [ 275 ] Most migrants of that earned run average fled poverty and war, reflected in the prevailing attitude toward wealth ; Hongkongers tend to link self-image and decision-making to material benefits. [ 276 ] [ 277 ] Residents ‘ feel of local identity has markedly increased post-handover : The majority of the population ( 52 % ) identifies as “ Hongkongers ”, while 11 % describe themselves as “ taiwanese ”. The remaining population drift mix identities, 23 % as “ Hongkonger in China ” and 12 % as “ chinese in Hong Kong ”. [ 278 ] traditional chinese family values, including kin honor, filial piety, and a preference for sons, are prevailing. [ 279 ] Nuclear families are the most common households, although multi-generational and prolong families are not unusual. [ 280 ] Spiritual concepts such as feng shui are observed ; large-scale construction projects often hire consultants to ensure proper building put and layout. The degree of its attachment to feng shui is believed to determine the success of a occupation. [ 177 ] Bagua mirrors are regularly used to deflect evil spirits, [ 281 ] and buildings much lack floor numbers with a 4 ; [ 282 ] the number has a similar sound to the give voice for “ die ” in Cantonese. [ 283 ]


food in Hong Kong is chiefly based on yue cuisine, despite the territory ‘s photograph to extraneous influences and its residents ‘ change origins. Rice is the basic food, and is normally served plain with other dishes. [ 284 ] Freshness of ingredients is emphasised. poultry and seafood are normally sold live at moisture markets, and ingredients are used ampere quickly as possible. [ 285 ] There are five daily meals : breakfast, lunch, good afternoon tea, dinner, and siu yeh. [ 286 ] Dim summarize, as depart of yum cha ( brunch ), is a dining-out tradition with family and friends. Dishes include conge, cha siu bao, siu yuk, egg tarts, and mango pudding. local versions of western food are served at cha chaan teng ( Hong Kong-style cafe ). Common cha chaan teng menu items include macaroni in soup, french-fry french toast, and Hong Kong-style milk tea. [ 284 ]


Statue of Bruce Lee in a fighting pose Statue of Bruce Lee on the Avenue of Stars, a tribute to the city ‘s film diligence Hong Kong developed into a filmmaking hub during the late 1940s as a wave of Shanghai filmmakers migrated to the territory, and these movie veterans helped build the colony ‘s entertainment industry over the future ten. [ 287 ] By the 1960s, the city was well known to oversea audiences through films such as The World of Suzie Wong. [ 288 ] When Bruce Lee ‘s The Way of the Dragon was released in 1972, local productions became popular outside Hong Kong. During the 1980s, films such as A Better Tomorrow, As Tears Go By, and Zu Warriors from the Magic Mountain expanded global interest beyond soldierly arts films ; locally made gangster films, romantic drama, and supernatural fantasies became popular. [ 289 ] Hong Kong cinema continued to be internationally successful over the following ten with critically acclaimed play such as Farewell My Concubine, To Live, and Chungking Express. The city ‘s warlike arts film roots are discernible in the roles of the most fecund Hong Kong actors. Jackie Chan, Donnie Yen, Jet Li, Chow Yun-fat, and Michelle Yeoh frequently play action-oriented roles in foreign films. At the height of the local anesthetic movie diligence in the early 1990s, over 400 films were produced each year ; since then, industry momentum shifted to mainland China. The number of films produced annually has declined to about 60 in 2017. [ 290 ]


Leslie Cheung with a microphoneA serious-looking Andy Lau, seated and wearing a suitLeslie Cheung (left) is considered a pioneering Cantopop artist, and is considered a pioneer Cantopop artist, and Andy Lau has been an picture of Hong Kong music and film for respective decades as a member of the Four Heavenly Kings. Cantopop is a genre of yue popular music which emerged in Hong Kong during the 1970s. Evolving from Shanghai-style shidaiqu, it is besides influenced by Cantonese opera and westerly dad. [ 291 ] local anesthetic media featured songs by artists such as Sam Hui, Anita Mui, Leslie Cheung, and Alan Tam ; during the 1980s, exported films and shows exposed Cantopop to a global audience. [ 292 ] The music genre ‘s popularity peaked in the 1990s, when the Four Heavenly Kings dominated asian record charts. [ 293 ] Despite a general decline since late in the decade, [ 294 ] Cantopop remains dominant in Hong Kong ; contemporary artists such as Eason Chan, Joey Yung, and Twins are democratic in and beyond the territory. [ 295 ] western classical music has historically had a strong presence in Hong Kong and remains a big part of local musical education. [ 296 ] The publicly funded Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra, the territory ‘s oldest professional symphony orchestra, frequently hosts musicians and conductors from abroad. The Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra, composed of classical chinese instruments, is the leading chinese ensemble and plays a significant role in promoting traditional music in the community. [ 297 ]

frolic and diversion

Despite its little area, the district is home to a diverseness of sports and amateur facilities. The city has hosted numerous major sporting events, including the 2009 East asian Games, the 2008 Summer Olympics equestrian events, and the 2007 Premier League Asia Trophy. [ 298 ] The territory regularly hosts the Hong Kong Sevens, Hong Kong Marathon, Hong Kong Tennis Classic and Lunar New Year Cup, and hosted the inaugural AFC Asian Cup and the 1995 Dynasty Cup. [ 299 ] [ 300 ] Hong Kong represents itself individually from mainland China, with its own sports teams in international competitions. [ 298 ] The territory has participated in about every summer Olympics since 1952 and has earned four medals. Lee Lai-shan won the district ‘s first Olympic amber decoration at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, [ 301 ] and Cheung Ka Long won the second one in Tokyo 2020. [ 302 ] Hong Kong athletes have won 126 medals at the Paralympic Games and 17 at the Commonwealth Games. No longer part of the Commonwealth of Nations, the city ‘s survive appearance in the latter was in 1994. [ 303 ] Dragon boat races originated as a religious ceremony conducted during the annual Tuen Ng Festival. The race was revived as a modern sport as contribution of the Tourism Board ‘s efforts to promote Hong Kong ‘s image abroad. The first base modern competition was organised in 1976, and oversea teams began competing in the first international race in 1993. [ 304 ] The Hong Kong Jockey Club, the territory ‘s largest taxpayer, [ 305 ] has a monopoly on gambling and provides over 7 % of government gross. [ 306 ] Three forms of gambling are legal in Hong Kong : lotteries, sawhorse rush, and football. [ 305 ]


education in Hong Kong is largely modelled after that of the United Kingdom, particularly the English system. [ 307 ] Children are required to attend school from age 6 until completion of secondary coil education, generally at age 18. [ 308 ] [ 309 ] At the end of secondary schooling, all students take a public examen and awarded the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education on successful completion. [ 310 ] Of residents aged 15 and older, 81 % completed lower-secondary education, 66 % graduated from an upper secondary coil school, 32 % attended a non-degree third plan, and 24 % earned a bachelor ‘s academic degree or higher. [ 311 ] Mandatory education has contributed to an pornographic literacy pace of 95.7 %. [ 312 ] The literacy rate is lower than that of early grow economies because of the inflow of refugees from mainland China during the post-war colonial era ; much of the aged population were not formally educated because of war and poverty. [ 313 ] [ 314 ] Comprehensive schools spill under three categories : public schools, which are government-run ; subsidised schools, including politics aid-and-grant schools ; and secret schools, often those run by religious organisations and that base admissions on academic merit. These schools are subject to the course of study guidelines as provided by the Education Bureau. Private schools subsidised under the Direct Subsidy Scheme ; international schools fall outside of this system and may elect to use differing course of study and teach using other languages. [ 309 ]
The government maintains a policy of “ mother tongue direction ” ; most schools use yue as the medium of education, with written department of education in both Chinese and English. early languages being used as medium of instruction in non-international school education include English and Putonghua ( Standard Mandarin Chinese ). junior-grade schools emphasise “ bi-literacy and tri-lingualism ”, which has encouraged the proliferation of address Mandarin linguistic process education. [ 315 ] Hong Kong has eleven universities. The University of Hong Kong was founded as the city ‘s first establish of higher education during the early colonial time period in 1911. [ 316 ] The chinese University of Hong Kong was established in 1963 to fill the indigence for a university that taught using Chinese as its chief lyric of instruction. [ 317 ] Along with the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and City University of Hong Kong, these universities are ranked among the best in Asia. [ 318 ] The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, [ 319 ] Hong Kong Baptist University, [ 320 ] Lingnan University, [ 321 ] Education University of Hong Kong, [ 322 ] Hong Kong Metropolitan University, [ 323 ] Hong Kong Shue Yan University and Hang Seng University of Hong Kong were all established in subsequent years. [ 324 ]


Most of the newsapapers in Hong Kong are written in chinese but there are besides a few English-language newspapers. The major one is the South China Morning Post, with The Standard serving as a business-oriented alternative. A variety of Chinese-language newspapers are published daily ; the most big are Ming Pao and Oriental Daily News. local publications are much politically affiliated, with pro-Beijing or pro-democracy sympathies. The cardinal government has a print-media presence in the territory through the state-owned Ta Kung Pao and Wen Wei Po. [ 325 ] several external publications have regional operations in Hong Kong, including The Wall Street Journal, Financial Times, The New York Times International Edition, USA Today, Yomiuri Shimbun, and The Nikkei. [ 326 ] Three free-to-air television broadcasters operate in the territory ; TVB, HKTVE, and Hong Kong Open TV air eight digital channels. [ 327 ] TVB, Hong Kong ‘s dominant allele television net, has an 80 % viewer share. [ 328 ] Pay television services operated by Cable television receiver Hong Kong and PCCW offer hundreds of extra channels and cater to a variety of audiences. [ 327 ] RTHK is the public broadcaster, providing seven radio channels and three television channels. [ 329 ] Ten non-domestic broadcasters atmosphere programming for the territory ‘s extraneous population. [ 327 ] Access to media and information over the Internet is not subjugate to mainland chinese regulations, including the Great Firewall, yet local manipulate applies. [ 330 ]

See besides





legislation and case law

academic publications

institutional reports

News and magazine articles


  • GovHK Hong Kong SAR government portal
  • Discover Hong Kong Official site of the Tourism Board

Coordinates :

source : https://shoppingandreview.com
Category : News


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