Facebook – Wikipedia

Social media service
This article is about the social media service. For its owner, once known as Facebook, Inc., see Meta Platforms not to be confused with Face reserve or Factbook

Facebook is an american on-line social media and sociable network servicing owned by Meta Platforms. Founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with companion Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes, its name comes from the face reserve directories frequently given to American university students. Membership was initially restrict to Harvard students, gradually expanding to other north american english universities and, since 2006, anyone over 13 years honest-to-god. As of 2020, Facebook claimed 2.8 billion monthly active users, [ 2 ] and ranked one-fourth in global internet usage. [ 6 ] It was the most download mobile app of the 2010s. [ 7 ] Facebook can be accessed from devices with Internet connectivity, such as personal computers, tablets and smartphones. After registering, users can create a profile reveal information about themselves. They can post text, photos and multimedia which are shared with any early users who have agreed to be their “ friend ” or, with different privacy settings, publicly. Users can besides communicate immediately with each other with Facebook Messenger, join common-interest groups, and experience notifications on the activities of their Facebook friends and the pages they follow. The subject of numerous controversies, Facebook has much been criticized over issues such as exploiter privacy ( as with the Cambridge Analytica data scandal ), political handling ( as with the 2016 U.S. elections ) and mass surveillance. [ 8 ] Posts originating from the Facebook page of Breitbart News, a media organization previously affiliated with Cambridge Analytica, are presently among the most widely shared political subject on Facebook. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] [ 11 ] [ 12 ] [ 13 ] Facebook has besides been topic to criticism over psychological effects such as addiction and low self-esteem, and diverse controversies over content such as talk through one’s hat news, conspiracy theories, copyright violation, and hate speech. [ 14 ] Commentators have accused Facebook of willingly facilitating the spread of such content, [ 15 ] [ 16 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ] deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as exaggerating its number of users to appeal to advertisers. [ 21 ]


Thefacebook in 2004, showing [22] original layout and name ofin 2004, showing Al Pacino ‘s face superimposed with binary numbers as Facebook ‘s master logo, designed by co-founder Andrew McCollum Zuckerberg built a web site called “ Facemash ” in 2003 while attending Harvard University. The locate was comparable to Hot or not and used “ photos compiled from the on-line confront books of nine Houses, placing two adjacent to each other at a time and asking users to choose the “ hot ” person ”. [ 23 ] Facemash attracted 450 visitors and 22,000 photo-views in its foremost four hours. [ 24 ] The site was sent to respective campus group listservs, but was shut down a few days subsequently by Harvard administration. Zuckerberg faced extrusion and was charged with breaching security, violating copyrights and violating individual privacy. ultimately, the charges were dropped. [ 23 ] Zuckerberg expanded on this project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final examination. He uploaded art images, each accompanied by a comments section, to a web site he shared with his classmates. [ 25 ] A “ confront book “ is a scholar directory featuring photos and personal information. [ 24 ] In 2003, Harvard had only a newspaper version [ 26 ] along with secret on-line directories. [ 23 ] Zuckerberg told The Harvard Crimson, “ Everyone ‘s been talking a batch about a universal face book within Harvard. … I think it ‘s kind of punch-drunk that it would take the University a couple of years to get around to it. I can do it better than they can, and I can do it in a week. ” In January 2004, Zuckerberg coded a new web site, known as “ TheFacebook ”, inspired by a Crimson editorial about Facemash, submit, “ It is open that the technology needed to create a centralized Website is readily available … the benefits are many. ” Zuckerberg met with Harvard student Eduardo Saverin, and each of them agreed to invest $ 1,000 in the web site. [ 28 ] On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched “ TheFacebook ”, originally located at thefacebook.com. [ 29 ]
Six days after the locate launched, Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com. They claimed that he was rather using their ideas to build a competing product. [ 30 ] The three complained to the Crimson and the newspaper began an probe. They later sued Zuckerberg, settling in 2008 [ 31 ] for 1.2 million shares ( worth $ 300 million at Facebook ‘s IPO ). [ 32 ] membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College. Within a month, more than half the undergraduates had registered. [ 33 ] Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, and Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help manage the growth of the web site. [ 34 ] In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Columbia, Stanford and Yale. [ 35 ] It then became available to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, NYU, MIT, and successively most universities in the United States and Canada. [ 36 ] [ 37 ] In mid-2004, Napster co-founder and entrepreneur Sean Parker —an informal adviser to Zuckerberg—became caller president. [ 38 ] In June 2004, the company moved to Palo Alto, California. [ 39 ] It received its inaugural investment subsequently that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. [ 40 ] In 2005, the caller dropped “ the ” from its name after purchasing the domain name Facebook.com for US $ 200,000. [ 41 ] The sphere had belonged to AboutFace Corporation. In May 2005, Accel Partners invested $ 12.7 million in Facebook, and Jim Breyer [ 42 ] added $ 1 million of his own money. A high-school version of the locate launched in September 2005. [ 43 ] Eligibility expanded to include employees of several companies, including Apple Inc. and Microsoft. [ 44 ]

2006–2012 : public access, Microsoft alliance, and rapid growth

In May 2006, Facebook hired its beginning intern, Julie Zhuo. [ 45 ] After a month, Zhuo was hired as a full-time engineer. [ 45 ] On September 26, 2006, Facebook opened to everyone at least 13 years erstwhile with a valid e-mail address. [ 46 ] [ 47 ] [ 48 ] By deep 2007, Facebook had 100,000 pages on which companies promoted themselves. [ 49 ] Organization pages began rolling out in May 2009. [ 50 ] On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced that it had purchased a 1.6 % share of Facebook for $ 240 million, giving Facebook a sum imply value of around $ 15 billion. Microsoft ‘s purchase included rights to place external advertisements. [ 51 ] [ 52 ] In May 2007, at the beginning f8 developers league, Facebook announced the establish of the Facebook Developer Platform, providing a model for software developers to create applications that interact with core Facebook features. By the second gear annual f8 developers conference on July 23, 2008, the number of applications on the platform had grown to 33,000, and the act of record developers had exceeded 400,000. [ 53 ] The web site acquire awards such as placement into the “ top 100 classical Websites ” by PC Magazine in 2007, [ 54 ] and winning the “ People ‘s Voice Award ” from the Webby Awards in 2008. [ 55 ] On July 20, 2008, Facebook introduced “ Facebook Beta ”, a meaning redesign of its drug user interface on selected networks. The Mini-Feed and Wall were consolidated, profiles were separated into tabbed sections, and an attempt was made to create a cleaner expression. [ 56 ] Facebook began migrating users to the modern version in September 2008. [ 57 ] In October 2008, Facebook announced that its external headquarters would locate in Dublin, Ireland. [ 58 ] In September 2009, Facebook said that it had achieved positive cash flow for the first time. [ 59 ] A January 2009 Compete.com survey ranked Facebook the most secondhand social network service by cosmopolitan monthly active users. [ 60 ] [ better source needed ] China blocked Facebook in 2009 following the Ürümqi riots. [ 61 ] In 2010, Facebook won the Crunchie “ Best Overall Startup Or Product ” prize [ 62 ] for the one-third year in a row. [ 63 ] The caller announced 500 million users in July 2010. [ 64 ] Half of the locate ‘s membership used Facebook day by day, for an average of 34 minutes, while 150 million users accessed the locate from mobile devices. A company representative called the milestone a “ quietly revolution. ” [ 65 ] In October 2010 groups were introduced. [ 66 ] In November 2010, based on SecondMarket Inc. ( an substitution for privately held companies ‘ shares ), Facebook ‘s measure was $ 41 billion. The company had slenderly surpassed eBay to become the third base largest american vane company after Google and Amazon.com. [ 67 ] [ 68 ] On November 15, 2010, Facebook announced it had acquired the domain name fb.com from the american Farm Bureau Federation for an undisclosed total. On January 11, 2011, the Farm Bureau disclosed $ 8.5 million in “ knowledge domain sales income ”, making the acquisition of FB.com one of the ten-spot highest sphere sales in history. [ 69 ] In February 2011, Facebook announced plans to move its headquarters to the erstwhile Sun Microsystems campus in Menlo Park, California. [ 71 ] In March 2011, it was reported that Facebook was removing about 20,000 profiles daily for violations such as spam, graphic content and underage use, as contribution of its efforts to boost cyber security system. [ 72 ] Statistics showed that Facebook reached one trillion page views in the month of June 2011, making it the most visit web site tracked by DoubleClick. [ 73 ] [ 74 ] According to a Nielsen learn, Facebook had in 2011 become the second-most access web site in the U.S. behind Google. [ 75 ] [ 76 ]

2012–2013 : initial public offering, lawsuits, and one-billionth user

In March 2012, Facebook announced App Center, a memory sell applications that operate via the web site. The storehouse was to be available on iPhones, Android devices, and for mobile web users. [ 77 ]
Billboard on the Thomson Reuters build up welcomes Facebook to NASDAQ, May 2012 Facebook ‘s initial public propose came on May 17, 2012, at a share price of US $ 38. The company was valued at $ 104 billion, the largest evaluation to that date. [ 78 ] [ 79 ] [ 80 ] The IPO raised $ 16 billion, the third-largest in U.S. history, after Visa Inc. in 2008 and AT & T Wireless in 2000. [ 81 ] [ 82 ] Based on its 2012 income of $ 5 billion, Facebook joined the Fortune 500 list for the foremost clock time in May 2013, ranked 462. [ 83 ] The shares set a first-day record for trade book of an IPO ( 460 million shares ). [ 84 ] The IPO was controversial given the contiguous price declines that followed, [ 85 ] [ 86 ] [ 87 ] [ 88 ] and was the national of lawsuits, [ 89 ] while SEC and FINRA both launch investigations. [ 90 ] Zuckerberg announced at the starting signal of October 2012 that Facebook had one billion monthly active users, [ 91 ] including 600 million mobile users, 219 billion photograph uploads and 140 billion ally connections. [ 92 ]

2013–2014 : locate developments, A4AI, and 10th anniversary

On January 15, 2013, Facebook announced Facebook Graph Search, which provides users with a “ precise answer ”, rather than a link to an answer by leveraging data introduce on its site. [ 93 ] Facebook emphasized that the feature would be “ privacy-aware ”, returning results only from subject already shared with the user. [ 94 ] On April 3, 2013, Facebook unveiled Facebook Home, a user-interface layer for Android devices offering greater integration with the web site. HTC announced HTC First, a earphone with Home pre-loaded. [ 95 ] On April 15, 2013, Facebook announced an alliance across 19 states with the National Association of Attorneys General, to provide teenagers and parents with information on tools to manage social network profiles. [ 96 ] On April 19 Facebook modified its logo to remove the dim blasphemous note at the bottom of the “ F ” picture. The letter F moved closer to the edge of the box. [ 97 ] Following a crusade by 100 advocacy groups, Facebook agreed to update its policy on hate lecture. The crusade highlighted message promote domestic violence and sexual violence against women and led 15 advertisers to withdraw, including Nissan UK, House of Burlesque, and Nationwide UK. The company initially stated, “ while it may be crude and offensive, disgusting message on its own does not violate our policies ”. [ 98 ] It took action on May 29. [ 99 ] On June 12, Facebook announced that it was introducing clickable hashtags to help users follow trending discussions, or search what others are talking about on a subject. [ 100 ] San Mateo County, California, became the top wage-earning county in the area after the fourth quarter of 2012 because of Facebook. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the average wage was 107 % higher than the former year, at $ 168,000 a class, more than 50 % higher than the next-highest county, New York County ( good known as Manhattan ), at approximately $ 110,000 a year. [ 101 ] Facebook joined Alliance for low-cost Internet ( A4AI ) in October, as it launched. The A4AI is a alliance of populace and individual organizations that includes Google, Intel and Microsoft. Led by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the A4AI seeks to make Internet access more low-cost to ease access in the originate earth. [ 102 ] The company celebrated its tenth anniversary during the workweek of February 3, 2014. [ 103 ] In January 2014, over one billion users connected via a mobile device. [ 104 ] As of June, mobile accounted for 62 % of ad tax income, an increase of 21 % from the previous year. [ 105 ] By September Facebook ‘s commercialize capitalization had exceeded $ 200 billion. [ 106 ] [ 107 ] [ 108 ] Zuckerberg participated in a Q & A seance at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, on October 23, where he attempted to converse in Mandarin. Zuckerberg hosted visiting chinese politician Lu Wei, known as the “ Internet czar ” for his influence in China ‘s on-line policy, on December 8. [ 109 ] [ 110 ] [ 111 ]

2015–2020 : Algorithm revision ; juke news

As of 2015, Facebook ‘s algorithm was revised in an undertake to filter out false or mislead content, such as imposter news stories and hoaxes. It relied on users who flag a story accordingly. Facebook maintained that satirical content should not be intercepted. [ 112 ] The algorithm was accused of maintaining a “ percolate bubble “, where substantial the user disagrees with [ 113 ] and posts with few likes would be deprioritized. [ 114 ] In November, Facebook extended paternity leave from 4 weeks to 4 months. [ 115 ] On April 12, 2016, Zuckerberg outlined his 10-year sight, which rested on three chief pillars : artificial intelligence, increased ball-shaped connectivity, and virtual and augment reality. [ 116 ] In July, a US $ 1 billion befit was filed against the party alleging that it permitted Hamas to use it to perform assaults that cost the lives of four people. [ 117 ] Facebook released its blueprints of Surround 360 television camera on GitHub under an open-source license. [ 118 ] In September, it won an Emmy for its animated short “ Henry ”. [ 119 ] In October, Facebook announced a fee-based communications instrument called Workplace that aims to “ connect everyone ” at work. Users can create profiles, see updates from co-workers on their news feed, stream know video and participate in secure group chats. [ 120 ] Following the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Facebook announced that it would combat juke news program by using fact checkers from sites like FactCheck.org and Associated Press ( AP ), making reporting hoaxes easier through crowdsourcing, and disrupting fiscal incentives for abusers. [ 121 ]
On January 17, 2017, Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg planned to open Station F, a inauguration incubator campus in Paris, France. [ 123 ] On a six-month cycle, Facebook committed to work with ten to 15 data-driven startups there. [ 124 ] On April 18, Facebook announced the beta establish of Facebook Spaces at its annual F8 developer league. [ 125 ] Facebook Spaces is a virtual reality version of Facebook for Oculus VR goggles. In a virtual and shared space, users can access a curated choice of 360-degree photos and videos using their embodiment, with the support of the control. Users can access their own photos and videos, along with media shared on their newsfeed. [ 126 ] In September, Facebook announced it would spend up to US $ 1 billion on original shows for its Facebook Watch platform. [ 127 ] On October 16, it acquired the anonymous compliment app tbh, announcing its intention to leave the app autonomous. [ 128 ] [ 129 ] [ 130 ] [ 131 ] In October 2017, Facebook expanded its workplace with Definers Public Affairs, a PR firm that had in the first place been hired to monitor wardrobe coverage of the company to address concerns primarily regarding russian interfering, then mishandling of exploiter data by Cambridge Analytica, hate lecture on Facebook, and calls for regulation. [ 132 ] Company spokesman Tim Miller stated that a goal for technical school firms should be to “ have positive contented pushed out about your caller and negative content that ‘s being pushed out about your rival ”. Definers claimed that George Soros was the wedge behind what appeared to be a across-the-board anti-Facebook movement, and created early negative media, along with America Rising, that was picked up by larger media organisations like Breitbart News. [ 132 ] [ 133 ] Facebook cut ties with the representation in belated 2018, following public outshout over their association. [ 134 ] In May 2018 at F8, the company announced it would offer its own date service. Shares in rival Match Group fell by 22 %. [ 135 ] Facebook Dating includes privacy features and friends are ineffective to view their friends ‘ dating profile. [ 136 ] In July, Facebook was charged £500,000 by UK watchdogs for failing to respond to data erasure requests. [ 137 ] On July 18, Facebook established a subordinate named Lianshu Science & Technology in Hangzhou City, China, with $ 30 million of capital. All its shares are held by Facebook Hong. [ 138 ] Approval of the registration of the subordinate was then withdraw, due to a disagreement between officials in Zhejiang state and the Cyberspace Administration of China. [ 139 ] On July 26, Facebook became the foremost company to lose over $ 100 billion deserving of market capitalization in one day, dropping from about $ 630 billion to $ 510 billion after disappointing sales reports. [ 140 ] [ 141 ] On July 31, Facebook said that the company had deleted 17 accounts related to the 2018 U.S. midterm elections. On September 19, Facebook announced that, for news distribution outside the United States, it would work with U.S. funded majority rule forwarding organizations, International Republican Institute and the National Democratic Institute, which are loosely affiliated with the Republican and democratic parties. [ 142 ] Through the Digital Forensic Research Lab Facebook partners with the Atlantic Council, a NATO -affiliated think tank. [ 142 ] In November, Facebook launched ache displays branded Portal and Portal Plus ( Portal+ ). They support Amazon ‘s Alexa ( intelligent personal assistant military service ). The devices include television chat function with Facebook Messenger. [ 143 ] [ 144 ] In August 2018, a lawsuit was filed in Oakland, California claiming that Facebook created juke accounts in order to inflate its drug user data and appeal to advertisers in the work. [ 21 ]
In January 2019, the 10-year challenge was started [ 145 ] asking users to post a photograph of themselves from 10 years ago ( 2009 ) and a more recent photograph. [ 146 ] Criticized for its role in vaccine hesitance, Facebook announced in March 2019 that it would provide users with “ authoritative information ” on the subject of vaccines. [ 147 ] A study in the journal Vaccine [ 148 ] of advertisements posted in the three months prior to that found that 54 % of the anti-vaccine advertisements on Facebook were placed by equitable two organisations funded by well-known anti-vaccination activists. [ 149 ] The Children ‘s Health Defense / World Mercury Project chaired by Robert F. Kennedy Jr. and Stop Mandatory Vaccination, run by campaigner Larry Cook, posted 54 % of the advertisements. The ads often linked to commercial products, such as natural remedies and books. On March 14, the Huffington Post reported that Facebook ‘s PR agency had paid person to tweak Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg ‘s Wikipedia page, vitamin a well as adding a page for the ball-shaped head of PR, Caryn Marooney. [ 150 ] In March 2019, the perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings in New Zealand used Facebook to stream populate footage of the attack as it unfolded. Facebook took 29 minutes to detect the livestreamed video recording, which was eight minutes longer than it took police to arrest the gunman. About 1.3m copies of the video were blocked from Facebook but 300,000 copies were published and shared. Facebook has promised changes to its chopine ; spokesman Simon Dilner told Radio New Zealand that it could have done a better job. several companies, including the ANZ and ASB banks, have stopped advertise on Facebook after the ship’s company was widely condemned by the public. [ 151 ] Following the attack, Facebook began blocking white patriot, white supremacist, and white breakaway content, saying that they could not be meaningfully separated. previously, Facebook had only blocked overtly supremacist message. The erstwhile policy had been condemned by civil rights groups, who described these movements as functionally indistinct. [ 152 ] [ 153 ] Further bans were made in mid-april 2019, banning respective british reactionary organizations and associate individuals from Facebook, and besides banning praise or digest for them. [ 154 ] [ 155 ] NTJ ‘s extremity Moulavi Zahran Hashim, a radical Islamist imam believed to be the mastermind behind the 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings, preached on a pro- ISIL Facebook score, known as “ Al-Ghuraba ” media. [ 156 ] [ 157 ]
On May 2, 2019, at F8, the company announced its new sight with the tagline “ the future is private ”. [ 158 ] A redesign of the web site and mobile app was introduced, dubbed as “ FB5 ”. [ 159 ] The event besides featured plans for improving groups, [ 160 ] a dating platform, [ 161 ] end-to-end encoding on its platforms, [ 162 ] and allowing users on Messenger to communicate immediately with WhatsApp and Instagram users. [ 163 ] [ 164 ] On July 31, 2019, Facebook announced a partnership with University of California, San Francisco to build a non-invasive, clothing device that lets people type by plainly imagining themselves talking. [ 165 ] On August 13, 2019, it was revealed that Facebook had enlisted hundreds of contractors to create and obtain transcripts of the sound recording messages of users. [ 166 ] [ 167 ] [ 168 ] This was particularly coarse of Facebook Messenger, where the contractors frequently listened to and transcribe voice messages of users. [ 168 ] After this was beginning reported on by Bloomberg News, Facebook released a statement confirming the report to be truthful, [ 167 ] but besides stated that the monitoring program was now suspended. [ 167 ] On September 5, 2019, Facebook launched Facebook Dating in the United States. This new application allows users to integrate their Instagram posts in their go steady visibility. [ 169 ] Facebook News, which features selected stories from newsworthiness organizations, was launched on October 25. [ 170 ] Facebook ‘s decisiveness to include reactionary web site Breitbart News as a “ trust source ” was negatively received. [ 171 ] [ 172 ] On November 17, 2019, the bank data for 29,000 Facebook employees was stolen from a payroll actor ‘s cable car. The data was stored on unencrypted hard drives and included bank account numbers, employee names, the death four digits of their social security numbers, salaries, bonuses, and fairness details. The company did n’t realize the hard drives were missing until November 20. Facebook confirmed that the drives contained employee information on November 29. Employees were n’t notified of the housebreaking until December 13, 2019. [ 173 ] On March 10, 2020, Facebook appointed two new directors Tracey Travis and Nancy Killefer to their board of members. [ 174 ] In June 2020, respective major companies including Adidas, Aviva, Coca-Cola, Ford, HP, InterContinental Hotels Group, Mars, Starbucks, Target, and Unilever, announced they would pause adverts on Facebook for July in back of the Stop Hate For Profit political campaign which claimed the company was not doing adequate to remove hateful content. [ 175 ] The BBC noted that this was improbable to affect the company as most of Facebook ‘s ad tax income comes from small- to medium-sized businesses. [ 176 ] On August 14, 2020, Facebook started integrating the mastermind messaging service of Instagram with its own messenger for both io and Android devices. After the update, an update filmdom is said to pop up on Instagram ‘s mobile app with the adopt message, “ There ‘s a New Way to Message on Instagram ” with a number of extra features. As part of the update, the regular DM icon on the peak right corner of Instagram will be replaced by the Facebook Messenger logo. [ 177 ] On September 15, 2020, Facebook launched a climate science data centre to promote authoritative voices on climate exchange and provide access of “ actual and up-to-date ” information on climate skill. It featured facts, figures and data from organizations, including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ), Met Office, UN Environment Programme ( UNEP ), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA ) and World Meteorological Organization ( WMO ), with relevant news program posts. [ 178 ] After the 2020 U.S. presidential election, Facebook temporarily increased the weight of ecosystem quality in its newsworthiness tip algorithm. [ 179 ]

2020–present : FTC lawsuit, corporate re-branding, shut down of facial realization technology, ease of policy

Facebook was sued by the Federal Trade Commission angstrom good as a coalition of several states for illegal monopolization and antimonopoly. The FTC and states sought the courts to force Facebook to sell its subsidiaries WhatsApp and Instagram. [ 180 ] [ 181 ] The suits were dismissed by a federal pronounce on June 28, 2021, who stated that there was not enough attest brought in the suit to determine Facebook to be a monopoly at this point, though allowed the FTC to amend its lawsuit to include extra evidence. [ 182 ] In its amended filings in August 2021, the FTC asserted that Facebook had been a monopoly in the area of personal social networks since 2011, distinguishing Facebook ‘s activities from sociable media services like TikTok that air message without necessarily limiting that message to intended recipients. [ 183 ] In reaction to the proposed bill in the australian Parliament for a News Media Bargaining Code, on February 17, 2021, Facebook blocked australian users from sharing or viewing news content on its platform, angstrom well as pages of some government, community, union, charity, political, and emergency services. [ 184 ] The australian politics strongly criticised the move, saying it demonstrated the “ huge market office of these digital social giants ”. [ 185 ] On February 22, Facebook said it reached an agreement with the australian government that would see news program returning to australian users in the come days. As separate of this agreement, Facebook and Google can avoid the News Media Bargaining Code adopted on February 25 if they “ reach a commercial bargain with a news clientele outside the Code ”. [ 186 ] [ 187 ] [ 188 ] Facebook has been accused of removing and apparition ban content that spoke either in prefer of protesting indian farmers or against Narendra Modi ‘s government. [ 189 ] [ 190 ] [ 191 ] India -based employees of Facebook are at gamble of arrest. [ 192 ] On February 27, 2021, Facebook announced Facebook BARS app for rappers. [ 193 ] On June 29, 2021, Facebook announced Bulletin, a platform for freelancer writers. [ 194 ] [ 195 ] Unlike competitors such as Substack, Facebook would not take a cut of subscription fees of writers using that platform upon its launch, like Malcolm Gladwell and Mitch Albom. According to The Washington Post engineering writer Will Oremus, the move was criticized by those who viewed it as an tactic intended by Facebook to force those competitors out of business. [ 196 ] In October 2021, owner Facebook, Inc. changed its company list to Meta Platforms, Inc., or plainly “ Meta ”, as it shifts its concenter to building the “ metaverse “. This change does not affect the name of the Facebook social network serve itself, alternatively being alike to the creation of Alphabet as Google ‘s rear company in 2015. [ 197 ] In November 2021, Facebook stated it would stop targeting ads based on data related to health, race, ethnicity, political impression, religion and sexual orientation course. The transfer will occur in January and will affect all apps owned by Meta Platforms. [ 198 ] In February 2022, Facebook ‘s daily active users dropped for the first time in its 18-year history. According to Facebook ‘s parent caller Meta Networks, DAUs dropped to 1.929 billion in the three months ending in December, down from 1.930 billion the previous stern. Furthermore, the party warned that tax income increase would slow due to competition from TikTok and YouTube, vitamin a well as advertisers cutting bet on on spend. [ 199 ] On March 10, 2022, Facebook announced that it will temporarily ease rules to allow violent actor’s line against ‘Russian invaders ‘. [ 200 ] Russia then banned all meta service, including Instagram. [ 201 ]

October 4, 2021, ball-shaped overhaul outage

On October 4, 2021, Facebook had its worst outage since 2008. The outage was global in oscilloscope, and took down all Facebook properties, including Instagram and WhatsApp, from approximately 15:39 UTC to 22:05 UTC, and affected approximately three billion users. [ 202 ] [ 203 ] [ 204 ] Security experts identified the problem as a BGP withdrawal of all of the IP routes to their Domain Name ( DNS ) servers which were all self-hosted at the clock. [ 205 ] [ 206 ] The outage besides affected all home communications systems used by Facebook employees, which disrupted restoration efforts. [ 206 ]

Shutdown of facial recognition

On November 2, 2021, Facebook announced it would shut down its facial recognition technology and delete the data on over a billion users. [ 207 ] Meta late announced plans to implement the technology arsenic well as other biometric systems in its future products, such as the metaverse. [ 208 ] The closure of the technology will reportedly besides stop Facebook ‘s automated elevation text system, used to transcribe media on the chopine for visually mar users. [ 208 ]


Profile shown on Thefacebook in 2005 former Facebook logo in use from August 23, 2005, until July 1, 2015

technical aspects

The web site ‘s basal color is bluing as Zuckerberg is red–green colorblind, a realization that occurred after a test undertake around 2007. [ 209 ] [ 210 ] Facebook is built in PHP, compiled with HipHop for PHP, a “ source code transformer ” built by Facebook engineers that turns PHP into C++. [ 211 ] The deployment of HipHop reportedly reduced average CPU pulmonary tuberculosis on Facebook servers by 50 %. [ 212 ]

2012 architecture

Facebook is developed as one monolithic application. According to an interview in 2012 with Facebook build engineer Chuck Rossi, Facebook compiles into a 1.5 GB binary star blob which is then distributed to the servers using a custom BitTorrent -based publish system. Rossi stated that it takes about 15 minutes to build and 15 minutes to release to the servers. The build and turn process has zero downtime. Changes to Facebook are rolled out daily. [ 212 ] Facebook used a combination chopine based on HBase to store data across distributed machines. Using a chase architecture, events are stored in log files, and the logs are tailed. The arrangement rolls these events up and writes them to storage. The user interface then pulls the data out and displays it to users. Facebook handles requests as AJAX behavior. These requests are written to a logarithm file using Scribe ( developed by Facebook ). [ 213 ] Data is read from these log files using Ptail, an internally built tool to aggregate data from multiple Scribe stores. It tails the logarithm files and pulls data out. Ptail data are separated into three streams and sent to clusters in different data centers ( Plugin depression, News run impressions, Actions ( plugin + news tip ) ). Puma is used to manage periods of high data menstruate ( Input/Output or IO ). Data is processed in batches to lessen the number of times needed to read and write under high demand periods. ( A hot article generates many impressions and news prey impressions that cause huge data skews. ) Batches are taken every 1.5 seconds, limited by memory used when creating a hashish postpone. [ 213 ] Data is then end product in PHP format. The backend is written in Java. thrift is used as the message format sol PHP programs can query Java services. Caching solutions display pages more promptly. The data is then sent to MapReduce servers where it is question via Hive. This serves as a backup as the data can be recovered from Hive. [ 213 ]

content rescue network ( CDN )

Facebook uses its own content delivery network or “ edge network ” under the world fbcdn.net for serving inactive data. [ 214 ] [ 215 ] Until the mid 2010s, Facebook besides relied on Akamai for CDN services. [ 216 ] [ 217 ] [ 218 ]

Hack scheduling language

On March 20, 2014, Facebook announced a raw open-source programming speech called Hack. Before public spill, a large share of Facebook was already running and “ battle tested ” using the new terminology. [ 219 ]

User profile/personal timeline

Facebook login/signup filmdom Each registered user on Facebook has a personal profile that shows their posts and content. [ 220 ] The format of individual exploiter pages was revamped in September 2011 and became known as “ Timeline ”, a chronological feed of a exploiter ‘s stories, [ 221 ] [ 222 ] including condition updates, photos, interactions with apps and events. [ 223 ] The layout let users add a “ covering photograph ”. [ 223 ] Users were given more privacy settings. [ 223 ] In 2007, Facebook launched Facebook Pages for brands and celebrities to interact with their fanbases. [ 224 ] [ 225 ] 100,000 Pages [ further explanation needed ] launched in November. [ 226 ] In June 2009, Facebook introduced a “ Usernames ” feature of speech, allowing users to choose a unique nickname used in the URL for their personal profile, for easier partake. [ 227 ] [ 228 ] In February 2014, Facebook expanded the sex set, adding a customs input signal playing field that allows users to choose from a wide-eyed image of sex identities. Users can besides set which set of gender-specific pronoun should be used in reference book to them throughout the web site. [ 229 ] [ 230 ] [ 231 ] In May 2014, Facebook introduced a feature to allow users to ask for data not disclosed by other users on their profiles. If a user does not provide key information, such as placement, hometown, or relationship condition, early users can use a new “ ask ” button to send a message asking about that detail to the user in a unmarried chatter. [ 232 ] [ 233 ]

News Feed

News Feed appears on every user ‘s home page and highlights information including profile changes, upcoming events and friends ‘ birthdays. [ 234 ] This enabled spammers and other users to manipulate these features by creating bastard events or posting fudge birthdays to attract attention to their profile or cause. [ 235 ] Initially, the News Feed caused dissatisfaction among Facebook users ; some complained it was excessively clutter and entire of undesired information, others were concerned that it made it besides easy for others to track person activities ( such as relationship status changes, events, and conversations with other users ). [ 236 ] Zuckerberg apologized for the locate ‘s failure to include appropriate privacy features. Users then gained control condition over what types of data are shared mechanically with friends. Users are now able to prevent user-set categories of friends from seeing updates about certain types of activities, including profile changes, Wall posts and newly added friends. [ 237 ] On February 23, 2010, Facebook was granted a patent [ 238 ] on certain aspects of its News Feed. The patent covers News Feeds in which links are provided so that one exploiter can participate in the activeness of another user. [ 239 ] The classification and display of stories in a user ‘s News Feed is governed by the EdgeRank algorithm. [ 240 ] The Photos application allows users to upload albums and photos. [ 241 ] Each album can contain 200 photos. [ 242 ] Privacy settings apply to individual albums. Users can “ tag “, or tag, friends in a photograph. The friend receives a notification about the chase with a connection to the photograph. [ 243 ] This photograph tagging sport was developed by Aaron Sittig, now a Design Strategy Lead at Facebook, and erstwhile Facebook engineer Scott Marlette back in 2006 and was entirely granted a patent in 2011. [ 244 ] [ 245 ] On June 7, 2012, Facebook launched its App Center to help users find games and other applications. [ 246 ] On May 13, 2015, Facebook in affiliation with major newsworthiness portals launched “ moment Articles ” to provide newsworthiness on the Facebook news feed without leaving the site. [ 247 ] [ 248 ] In January 2017, Facebook launched Facebook Stories for io and Android in Ireland. The feature, following the format of Snapchat and Instagram stories, allows users to upload photos and videos that appear above friends ‘ and followers ‘ News Feeds and disappear after 24 hours. [ 249 ] On October 11, 2017, Facebook introduced the 3D Posts feature to allow for uploading synergistic 3D assets. [ 250 ] On January 11, 2018, Facebook announced that it would change News Feed to prioritize friends/family content and de-emphasize content from media companies. [ 251 ] In February 2020, Facebook announced it would spend $ 1 billion to license news program material from publishers for the following three years ; a assurance coming as the company falls under scrutiny from governments across the globe over not paying for news capacity appearing on the platform. The pledge would be in addition to the $ 600 million paid since 2018 through deals with news program companies such as The Guardian and Financial Times. [ 252 ] [ 253 ] [ 254 ] In March and April 2021, in reception to Apple announcing changes to its io device ‘s Identifier for Advertisers policy, which included requiring app developers to directly request to users the ability to track on an opt-in basis, Facebook purchased full-page newspaper advertisements attempting to convince users to allow trailing, highlighting the effects targeted ads have on minor businesses. [ 255 ] Facebook ‘s efforts were ultimately unsuccessful, as Apple released io 14.5 in former April 2021, containing the have for users in what has been deemed “ App Tracking Transparency ”. furthermore, statistics from Verizon Communications subsidiary company Flurry Analytics show 96 % of all io users in the United States are not permitting tracking at all, and only 12 % of worldwide io users are allowing traverse, which some news outlets deem “ Facebook ‘s nightmare ”, among like terms. [ 256 ] [ 257 ] [ 258 ] [ 259 ] Despite the news, Facebook has stated that the raw policy and software update would be “ manageable ”. [ 260 ]

Like button

Human billboard ad Facebook Canberra in the City foliate at the National Multicultural Festival The “ like ” button, stylized as a “ thumb up ” picture, was first enabled on February 9, 2009, [ 261 ] and enables users to well interact with condition updates, comments, photos and videos, links shared by friends, and advertisements. once clicked by a drug user, the destine capacity is more likely to appear in friends ‘ News Feeds. [ 262 ] [ 263 ] The push button displays the number of other users who have liked the content. [ 264 ] The like button was extended to comments in June 2010. [ 265 ] In February 2016, Facebook expanded Like into “ Reactions ”, choosing among five pre-defined emotions, including “ Love ”, “ Haha ”, “ Wow ”, “ Sad ”, or “ angry ”. [ 266 ] [ 267 ] [ 268 ] [ 269 ] In deep April 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, a new “ Care ” reaction was added. [ 270 ]

instant message

Facebook Messenger is an moment message service and software lotion. It began as Facebook Chat in 2008, [ 271 ] was revamped in 2010 [ 272 ] and finally became a standalone mobile app in August 2011, while remaining part of the exploiter page on browsers. [ 273 ] Complementing regular conversations, Messenger lets users make one-to-one [ 274 ] and group [ 275 ] spokesperson [ 276 ] and television calls. [ 277 ] Its Android app has integrated corroborate for SMS [ 278 ] and “ Chat Heads ”, which are round profile photograph icons appearing on-screen regardless of what app is open, [ 279 ] while both apps support multiple accounts, [ 280 ] conversations with optional end-to-end encoding [ 281 ] and “ moment Games ”. [ 282 ] Some features, including sending money [ 283 ] and requesting transportation system, [ 284 ] are limited to the United States. [ 283 ] In 2017, Facebook added “ Messenger Day ”, a feature that lets users plowshare photos and videos in a story-format with all their friends with the contentedness melt after 24 hours ; [ 285 ] Reactions, which lets users tap and hold a message to add a chemical reaction through an emoji ; [ 286 ] and Mentions, which lets users in group conversations type @ to give a especial exploiter a presentment. [ 286 ] Businesses and users can interact through Messenger with features such as tracking purchases and receiving notifications, and interacting with customer service representatives. Third-party developers can integrate apps into Messenger, letting users enter an app while inside Messenger and optionally share details from the app into a old world chat. [ 287 ] Developers can build chatbots into Messenger, for uses such as news publishers building bots to distribute newsworthiness. [ 288 ] The M virtual adjunct ( U.S. ) scans chats for keywords and suggests relevant actions, such as its payments system for users mentioning money. [ 289 ] [ 290 ] Group chatbots appear in Messenger as “ Chat Extensions ”. A “ Discovery ” tab key allows finding bots, and enabling special, branded QR codes that, when scanned, take the exploiter to a specific bot. [ 291 ]

privacy policy

Facebook ‘s data policy outlines its policies for collecting, storing, and sharing exploiter ‘s data. [ 292 ] Facebook enables users to control access to individual posts and their profile [ 293 ] through privacy settings. [ 294 ] The exploiter ‘s name and profile picture ( if applicable ) are public. Facebook ‘s tax income depends on target advertising, which involves analyzing exploiter data to decide which ads to show each drug user. Facebook buys data from one-third parties, gathered from both on-line and offline sources, to supplement its own data on users. Facebook maintains that it does not share data used for target advertising with the advertisers themselves. [ 295 ] The party states :

“ We provide advertisers with reports about the kinds of people seeing their ads and how their ads are performing, but we do n’t plowshare data that personally identifies you ( data such as your name or e-mail address that by itself can be used to contact you or identifies who you are ) unless you give us permission. For exemplar, we provide general demographic and interest information to advertisers ( for model, that an ad was seen by a charwoman between the ages of 25 and 34 who lives in Madrid and likes software engineering ) to help them better understand their consultation. We besides confirm which Facebook ads led you to make a buy or take an action with an advertiser. ” [ 292 ]

As of October 2021, Facebook claims it uses the adopt policy for sharing drug user data with third parties :

Apps, websites, and third-party integrations on or using our Products. When you choose to use third-party apps, websites, or other services that use, or are integrated with, our Products, they can receive information about what you post or share. For case, when you play a bet on with your Facebook friends or use a Facebook Comment or Share button on a web site, the game developer or web site can receive data about your activities in the game or receive a comment or link that you contribution from the web site on Facebook. besides, when you download or use such third-party services, they can access your public profile on Facebook, and any data that you share with them. Apps and websites you use may receive your list of Facebook friends if you choose to share it with them. But apps and websites you use will not be able to receive any other information about your Facebook friends from you, or information about any of your Instagram followers ( although your friends and followers may, of course, choose to share this data themselves ). information collected by these third-party services is submit to their own terms and policies, not this one. Devices and operating systems providing native versions of Facebook and Instagram ( i.e. where we have not developed our own first-party apps ) will have access to all information you choose to partake with them, including data your friends share with you, so they can provide our core functionality to you. notice : We are in the process of restricting developers ‘ data access even further to help prevent misuse. For case, we will remove developers ‘ access to your Facebook and Instagram data if you have n’t used their app in 3 months, and we are changing Login, so that in the next translation, we will reduce the datum that an app can request without app review to include entirely mention, Instagram username and bio, visibility photograph and e-mail address. Requesting any other data will require our approval. [ 292 ]

Facebook will besides parcel data with law enforcement. [ 292 ] Facebook ‘s policies have changed repeatedly since the military service ‘s introduction, amid a series of controversies covering everything from how well it secures user data, to what extent it allows users to control access, to the kinds of entree given to third parties, including businesses, political campaigns and governments. These facilities vary according to state, as some nations require the company to make data available ( and limit access to services ), while the European Union ‘s GDPR regulation mandates extra privacy protections. [ 296 ]

Bug Bounty Program

On July 29, 2011, Facebook announced its Bug Bounty Program that paid security researchers a minimum of $ 500 for reporting security holes. The party promised not to pursue “ white hat ” hackers who identified such problems. [ 297 ] [ 298 ] This led researchers in many countries to participate, particularly in India and Russia. [ 299 ]



Facebook ‘s rapid growth began arsenic soon as it became available and continued through 2018, before beginning to decline. Facebook passed 100 million registered users in 2008, [ 300 ] and 500 million in July 2010. [ 64 ] According to the company ‘s data at the July 2010 announcement, half of the locate ‘s membership used Facebook daily, for an average of 34 minutes, while 150 million users accessed the locate by fluid. [ 65 ] In October 2012, Facebook ‘s monthly active users passed one billion, [ 91 ] [ 301 ] with 600 million mobile users, 219 billion photograph uploads, and 140 billion ally connections. [ 92 ] The 2 billion user crisscross was crossed in June 2017. [ 302 ] [ 303 ] In November 2015, after agnosticism about the accuracy of its “ monthly active users ” measurement, Facebook changed its definition to a logged-in penis who visits the Facebook site through the web browser or mobile app, or uses the Facebook Messenger app, in the 30-day time period anterior to the measurement. This excluded the use of third-party services with Facebook integration, which was previously counted. [ 304 ] From 2017 to 2019, the share of the U.S. population over the age of 12 who use Facebook has declined, from 67 % to 61 % ( a decline of some 15 million U.S. users ), with a higher slump among younger Americans ( a decrease in the percentage of U.S. 12- to 34-year-olds who are users from 58 % in 2015 to 29 % in 2019 ). [ 305 ] [ 306 ] The decline coincided with an increase in the popularity of Instagram, which is besides owned by Meta. [ 305 ] [ 306 ] The number of daily active agent users experienced a quarterly decline for the beginning time in the end quarter of 2021, gloomy to 1.929 billion from 1.930 billion, [ 307 ] but increased again the adjacent quarter despite being banned in Russia. [ 308 ] historically, commentators have offered predictions of Facebook ‘s decline or end, based on causes such as a declining exploiter base ; [ 309 ] the legal difficulties of being a closed platform, inability to generate gross, inability to offer drug user privacy, inability to adapt to mobile platforms, or Facebook ending itself to present a following generation substitution ; [ 310 ] or Facebook ‘s role in russian interference in the 2016 United States elections. [ 311 ]

in 2004 to 2.8 billion in 2020.[296][312] Facebook popularity. active users ( in millions ) of Facebook increased from just a millionin 2004 to 2.8 billion in 2020 .


The highest number of Facebook users as of October 2018 are from India and the United States, followed by Indonesia, Brazil and Mexico. [ 314 ] Region-wise, the highest count of users are from Asia-Pacific ( 947 million ) followed by Europe ( 381 million ) and US-Canada ( 242 million ). The rest of the universe has 750 million users. [ 315 ] Over the 2008–2018 period, the percentage of users under 34 declined to less than half of the full. [ 296 ]


Currently blocked

Formerly blocked Map showing the countries that are either presently blocking or have blocked Facebook in the past In many countries the social network sites and mobile apps have been blocked temporarily or permanently, including China, [ 316 ] Iran, [ 317 ] Vietnam, [ 318 ] Pakistan, [ 319 ] Syria, [ 320 ] and North Korea. In May 2018, the government of Papua New Guinea announced that it would ban Facebook for a calendar month while it considered the shock of the web site on the state, though no banish has since occurred. [ 321 ] In 2019, Facebook announced it would start enforcing its prohibition on users, including influencers, promoting any vape, tobacco products, or weapons on its platforms. [ 322 ]

Criticisms and controversies

“ I ‘m here nowadays because I believe Facebook ‘s products injury children, stoke division, and weaken our democracy. The company ‘s leadership knows how to make Facebook and Instagram safe, but wo n’t make the necessary changes because they have put their astronomic profits before people. ”

— Frances Haugen, condemning miss of foil around Facebook at a US congressional listening ( 2021 ). [ 323 ]

“ I do n’t believe private companies should make all of the decisions on their own. That ‘s why we have advocated for update internet regulations for several years nowadays. I have testified in Congress multiple times and asked them to update these regulations. I ‘ve written op-eds outlining the areas of regulation we think are most important related to elections, harmful content, privacy, and competition. ”

—Mark Zuckerberg, responding to Frances Haugen ‘s revelations ( 2021 ). [ 324 ]

Facebook ‘s importance and scale has led to criticisms in many domains. Issues include Internet privacy, excessive retention of user information, [ 325 ] its facial recognition software, DeepFace [ 326 ] [ 327 ] its addictive quality [ 328 ] and its function in the workplace, including employer access to employee accounts. [ 329 ] Facebook has been criticized for electricity custom, [ 330 ] tax avoidance, [ 331 ] real-name drug user necessity policies, [ 332 ] censoring [ 333 ] [ 334 ] and its participation in the United States PRISM surveillance platform. [ 335 ] According to The Express Tribune, Facebook “ avoided billions of dollars in tax using offshore companies ”. [ 336 ] Facebook is alleged to have harmful psychological effects on its users, including feelings of jealousy [ 337 ] [ 338 ] and stress, [ 339 ] [ 340 ] a lack of attention [ 341 ] and social media addiction. [ 342 ] [ 343 ] According to Kaufmann et al., mothers ‘ motivations for using sociable media are often related to their social and mental health. [ 344 ] european antimonopoly regulator Margrethe Vestager stated that Facebook ‘s terms of service relating to private data were “ unbalanced ”. [ 345 ] Facebook has been criticized for allowing users to publish illegal or dysphemistic material. Specifics include copyright and cerebral property misdemeanor, [ 346 ] hate actor’s line, [ 347 ] [ 348 ] exhortation of rape [ 349 ] and terrorism, [ 350 ] [ 351 ] fudge news, [ 352 ] [ 353 ] [ 354 ] and crimes, murders, and livestreaming violent incidents. [ 355 ] [ 356 ] [ 357 ] Sri Lanka blocked both Facebook and WhatsApp in May 2019 after anti-Muslim riots, the worst in the country since the Easter Sunday bombing in the lapp year as a impermanent measure to maintain peace in Sri Lanka. [ 358 ] [ 359 ] Facebook removed 3 billion imposter accounts only during the last quarter of 2018 and the inaugural quarter of 2019 ; [ 360 ] in comparison, the social network reports 2.39 billion monthly active users. [ 360 ] In late July 2019, the caller announced it was under antimonopoly probe by the Federal Trade Commission. [ 361 ]


Facebook has faced a brace pour of controversies over how it handles drug user privacy, repeatedly adjusting its privacy settings and policies. [ 362 ] In 2010, the US National Security Agency began taking publicly posted profile information from Facebook, among early social media services. [ 363 ] On November 29, 2011, Facebook settled Federal Trade Commission charges that it deceived consumers by failing to keep privacy promises. [ 364 ] In August 2013 High-Tech Bridge published a study showing that links included in Facebook messaging military service messages were being accessed by Facebook. [ 365 ] In January 2014 two users filed a lawsuit against Facebook alleging that their privacy had been violated by this rehearse. [ 366 ] On June 7, 2018, Facebook announced that a microbe had resulted in about 14 million Facebook users having their default sharing setting for all new posts set to “ public ”. [ 367 ] On April 4, 2019, half a billion records of Facebook users were found exposed on Amazon obscure servers, containing data about users ‘ friends, likes, groups, and checked-in locations, ampere well as names, passwords and electronic mail addresses. [ 368 ] The call numbers of at least 200 million Facebook users were found to be exposed on an open on-line database in September 2019. They included 133 million US users, 18 million from the UK, and 50 million from users in Vietnam. After removing duplicates, the 419 million records have been reduced to 219 million. The database went offline after TechCrunch contacted the web host. It is thought the records were amassed using a joyride that Facebook disabled in April 2018 after the Cambridge Analytica controversy. A Facebook spokeswoman said in a instruction : “ The dataset is old and appears to have data obtained before we made changes last year … There is no evidence that Facebook accounts were compromised. ” [ 369 ] Facebook ‘s privacy problems resulted in companies like Viber Media and Mozilla discontinuing ad on Facebook ‘s platforms. [ 370 ] [ 371 ]

racial bias

Facebook was accused of committing “ systemic ” racial bias by EEOC based on the complaints of three rejected candidates and a current employee of the company. The three rejected employees along with the Operational Manager at Facebook as of March 2021 accused the tauten of discriminating against Black people. The EEOC has initiated an probe into the case. [ 372 ]

Shadow profiles

A “ shadow visibility “ refers to the data Facebook collects about individuals without their denotative permission. For case, the “ like ” push button that appears on third-party websites allows the ship’s company to collect information about an individual ‘s internet shop habits, even if the individual is not a Facebook exploiter. [ 373 ] [ 374 ] Data can besides be collected by early users. For exercise, a Facebook user can link their electronic mail report to their Facebook to find friends on the locate, allowing the party to collect the electronic mail addresses of users and non-users alike. [ 375 ] Over time, countless data points about an individual are collected ; any single data point possibly can not identify an individual, but together allows the party to form a unique “ profile. ” This practice has been criticized by those who believe people should be able to opt-out of involuntary data collection. additionally, while Facebook users have the ability to download and inspect the datum they provide to the locate, data from the user ‘s “ shadow visibility ” is not included, and non-users of Facebook do not have access to this tool regardless. The company has besides been ill-defined whether or not it is possible for a person to revoke Facebook ‘s access to their “ shadow profile. ” [ 373 ]

Cambridge Analytica

Facebook customer Global Science Research sold information on over 87 million Facebook users to Cambridge Analytica, a political data psychoanalysis firm led by Alexander Nix. [ 376 ] While approximately 270,000 people used the app, Facebook ‘s API permitted data solicitation from their friends without their cognition. [ 377 ] At first Facebook downplayed the meaning of the breach, and suggested that Cambridge Analytica no long had access. Facebook then issued a affirmation expressing alarm clock and suspended Cambridge Analytica. Review of documents and interviews with former Facebook employees suggested that Cambridge Analytica distillery possessed the datum. [ 378 ] This was a misdemeanor of Facebook ‘s accept decree with the Federal Trade Commission. This misdemeanor potentially carried a penalty of $ 40,000 per happening, totaling trillions of dollars. [ 379 ] According to The Guardian, both Facebook and Cambridge Analytica threatened to sue the newspaper if it published the fib. After issue, Facebook claimed that it had been “ lied to ”. On March 23, 2018, The English High Court granted an application by the Information Commissioner ‘s Office for a warrant to search Cambridge Analytica ‘s London offices, ending a repulsion between Facebook and the Information Commissioner over responsibility. [ 380 ] On March 25, Facebook published a statement by Zuckerberg in major UK and US newspapers apologizing over a “ transgress of trust ”. [ 381 ]

You may have heard about a quiz app built by a university research worker that leaked Facebook data of millions of people in 2014. This was a gap of faith, and I ‘m blue we did n’t do more at the time. We ‘re now taking steps to make indisputable this does n’t happen again. We ‘ve already stopped apps like this from getting indeed much information. now we ‘re limiting the datum apps get when you sign in using Facebook. We ‘re besides investigating every single app that had access to boastfully amounts of data before we fixed this. We expect there are others. And when we find them, we will ban them and tell everyone affected. finally, we ‘ll remind you which apps you ‘ve given entree to your data – so you can shut off the ones you do n’t want anymore. Thank you for believing in this community. I promise to do better for you .

On March 26, the Federal Trade Commission opened an investigation into the matter. [ 382 ] The controversy led Facebook to end its partnerships with data brokers who aid advertisers in targeting users. [ 362 ] On April 24, 2019, Facebook said it could face a fine between $ 3 billion to $ 5 billion as the resultant role of an probe by the Federal Trade Commission. The agency has been investigating Facebook for possible privacy violations, but has not announced any findings so far. [ 383 ] Facebook besides implemented extra privacy controls and settings [ 384 ] in part to comply with the European Union ‘s General Data Protection Regulation ( GDPR ), which took effect in May. [ 385 ] Facebook besides ended its active confrontation to the California Consumer Privacy Act. [ 386 ] Some, such as Meghan McCain have drawn an equality between the use of data by Cambridge Analytica and the Barack Obama ‘s 2012 political campaign, which, according to Investor’s Business Daily, “ encouraged supporters to download an Obama 2012 Facebook app that, when activated, let the political campaign collect Facebook data both on users and their friends. ” [ 387 ] [ 388 ] [ 389 ] Carol Davidsen, the Obama for America ( OFA ) former director of consolidation and media analytics, wrote that “ Facebook was surprised we were able to suck out the whole social graph, but they did n’t stop us once they realised that was what we were doing. ” [ 388 ] [ 389 ] PolitiFact has rated McCain ‘s statements “ Half-True ”, on the basis that “ in Obama ‘s case, direct users knew they were handing over their data to a political crusade ” whereas with Cambridge Analytica, users thought they were entirely taking a personality quiz for academic purposes, and while the Obama political campaign only used the data “ to have their supporters contact their most convincible friends ”, Cambridge Analytica “ targeted users, friends and lookalikes directly with digital ads. ” [ 390 ]


On September 28, 2018, Facebook experienced a major breach in its security, exposing the data of 50 million users. The data gap started in July 2017 and was discovered on September 16. [ 391 ] Facebook notified users affected by the exploit and logged them out of their accounts. [ 392 ] [ 393 ] In March 2019, Facebook confirmed a password compromise of millions of Facebook light application users besides affected millions of Instagram users. The reason cited was the repositing of password as apparent textbook rather of encoding which could be read by its employees. [ 394 ] On December 19, 2019, security research worker Bob Diachenko discovered a database containing more than 267 million Facebook drug user IDs, phone numbers, and names that were left exposed on the network for anyone to access without a password or any other authentication. [ 395 ] In February 2020, Facebook encountered a major security breach in which its official Twitter explanation was hacked by a Saudi Arabia -based group called “ OurMine “. The group has a history of actively exposing high-profile social media profiles ‘ vulnerabilities. [ 396 ] In April 2021, The Guardian reported approximately half a billion users ‘ data had been stolen including birthdates and telephone numbers. Facebook alleged it was “ old datum ” from a problem fixed in August 2019 despite the datum ‘s having been released a year and a one-half late only in 2021 ; it declined to speak with journalists, had obviously not advise regulators, called the trouble “ unfixable ”, and said it would not be advising users. [ 397 ]

Phone data and action

After acquiring Onavo in 2013, Facebook used its Onavo Protect virtual private network ( VPN ) app to collect information on users ‘ web traffic and app custom. This allowed Facebook to monitor its competitors ‘ performance, and motivated Facebook to acquire WhatsApp in 2014. [ 398 ] [ 399 ] [ 400 ] Media outlets classified Onavo Protect as spyware. [ 401 ] [ 402 ] [ 403 ] In August 2018, Facebook removed the app in reception to pressure from Apple, who asserted that it violated their guidelines. [ 404 ] [ 405 ] The australian Competition and Consumer Commission sued Facebook on December 16, 2020, for “ false, mislead or deceptive lead ” in response to the company ‘s use of personal data obtained from Onavo for business purposes in contrast to Onavo ‘s privacy-oriented market. [ 406 ] [ 407 ] In 2016, Facebook Research launched Project Atlas, offering some users between the ages of 13 and 35 up to $ 20 per month in exchange for their personal data, including their app usage, vane browsing history, web search history, location history, personal messages, photos, videos, emails and Amazon holy order history. [ 408 ] [ 409 ] In January 2019, TechCrunch reported on the project. This led Apple to temporarily revoke Facebook ‘s Enterprise Developer Program certificates for one day, preventing Facebook Research from operating on io devices and disabling Facebook ‘s internal io apps. [ 409 ] [ 410 ] [ 411 ] Ars Technica reported in April 2018 that the Facebook Android app had been harvesting exploiter data, including telephone calls and textbook messages, since 2015. [ 412 ] [ 413 ] [ 414 ] In May 2018, respective Android users filed a class action lawsuit against Facebook for invading their privacy. [ 415 ] [ 416 ] In January 2020, Facebook launched the Off-Facebook Activity page, which allows users to see information collected by Facebook about their non-Facebook activities. [ 417 ] The Washington Post columnist Geoffrey A. Fowler found that this included what other apps he used on his call, even while the Facebook app was closed, what other web sites he visited on his phone, and what in-store purchases he made from consort businesses, even while his telephone was completely off. [ 418 ] In November 2021, a report was published by Fairplay, Global Action Plan and Reset Australia detailing accusations that Facebook was continuing to manage their ad targeting system with data collected from adolescent users. [ 419 ] The accusations follow announcements by Facebook in July 2021 that they would cease ad targeting children. [ 420 ] [ 421 ]

Public apologies

The company first gear apologized for its privacy abuses in 2009. [ 422 ] Facebook apologies have appeared in newspapers, television, blog posts and on Facebook. [ 423 ] On March 25, 2018, leading US and UK newspapers published full-page ads with a personal apology from Zuckerberg. Zuckerberg issued a verbal apology on CNN. [ 424 ] In May 2010, he apologized for discrepancies in privacy settings. [ 423 ] previously, Facebook had its privacy settings spread out over 20 pages, and has now put all of its privacy settings on one page, which makes it more unmanageable for third-party apps to access the user ‘s personal information. [ 362 ] In accession to publicly apologizing, Facebook has said that it will be reviewing and auditing thousands of apps that display “ leery activities ” in an campaign to ensure that this breach of privacy does not happen again. [ 425 ] In a 2010 report regarding privacy, a research project stated that not a bunch of information is available regarding the consequences of what people disclose on-line then much what is available are equitable reports made available through popular media. [ 426 ] In 2017, a former Facebook administrator went on the commemorate to discuss how social media platforms have contributed to the unravel of the “ framework of society ”. [ 427 ]


Facebook relies on its users to generate the capacity that bonds its users to the serve. The company has come under criticism both for allowing objectionable content, including conspiracy theories and fringe discussion, [ 428 ] and for prohibiting other content that it deems inappropriate. Facebook has been criticized as a vector for ‘ fudge newsworthiness ‘, and has been accused of bearing province for the conspiracy theory that the United States created ISIS, [ 429 ] false anti- Rohingya posts being used by Myanmar ‘s military to fuel genocide and cultural cleanse, [ 430 ] [ 431 ] enabling climate change denial [ 432 ] [ 433 ] [ 434 ] and Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting conspiracy theorists, [ 435 ] and anti-refugee attacks in Germany. [ 436 ] [ 437 ] [ 438 ] The government of the Philippines has besides used Facebook as a creature to attack its critics. [ 439 ] In 2017, Facebook partnered with fact checkers from the Poynter Institute ‘s International Fact-Checking Network to identify and mark false content, though most ads from political candidates are exempt from this program. [ 440 ] [ 441 ] As of 2018, Facebook had over 40 fact-checking partners across the world, including The Weekly Standard. [ 442 ] Critics of the program have accused Facebook of not doing enough to remove false data from its web site. [ 442 ] [ 443 ] Professor Ilya Somin reported that he had been the subject of death threats on Facebook in April 2018 from Cesar Sayoc, who threatened to kill Somin and his family and “ feed the bodies to Florida alligators ”. Somin ‘s Facebook friends reported the comments to Facebook, which did nothing except dispatch automated messages. [ 444 ] Sayoc was by and by arrested for the October 2018 United States chain mail bombing attempts directed at democratic politicians. Facebook has repeatedly amended its contented policies. In July 2018, it stated that it would “ downrank ” articles that its fact-checkers determined to be faithlessly, and remove misinformation that incited violence. [ 445 ] Facebook stated that contentedness that receives “ false ” ratings from its fact-checkers can be demonetized and suffer dramatically reduced distribution. specific posts and videos that violate community standards can be removed on Facebook. [ 446 ] In May 2019, Facebook banned a number of “ dangerous ” commentators from its platform, including Alex Jones, Louis Farrakhan, Milo Yiannopoulos, Paul Joseph Watson, Paul Nehlen, David Duke, and Laura Loomer, for allegedly engaging in “ violence and hate ”. [ 447 ] [ 448 ] In May 2020, Facebook agreed to a preliminary settlement of $ 52 million to compensate U.S.-based Facebook contentedness moderators for their psychological trauma suffered on the problem. [ 449 ] [ 450 ] early legal actions around the world, including in Ireland, await colony. [ 451 ] In September 2020, the Government of Thailand used the Computer Crime Act for the first meter, to take action against Facebook and Twitter for ignoring requests to take down content and for not complying to the motor hotel orders. [ 452 ] In October 2020, Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan urged Mark Zuckerberg, through a letter posted on politics ‘s Twitter explanation, to ban Islamophobic content on Facebook, warning that it encouraged extremism and ferocity. [ 453 ] In October 2020, the company announced that it would ban Holocaust denial. [ 454 ]


Facebook was criticized for allowing InfoWars to publish falsehoods and conspiracy theories. [ 446 ] [ 455 ] [ 456 ] [ 457 ] [ 458 ] Facebook defended its actions in regards to InfoWars, saying “ we just do n’t think banning Pages for sharing conspiracy theories or false news is the right room to go. ” [ 456 ] Facebook provided only six cases in which it fact-checked content on the InfoWars page over the period September 2017 to July 2018. [ 446 ] In 2018 InfoWars falsely claimed that the survivors of the Parkland tear were “ actors ”. Facebook pledged to remove InfoWars subject making the claim, although InfoWars videos pushing the false claims were left up, even though Facebook had been contacted about the television. [ 446 ] Facebook stated that the video recording never explicitly called them actors. [ 446 ] Facebook besides allowed InfoWars videos that shared the Pizzagate conspiracy hypothesis to survive, despite specific assertions that it would purge Pizzagate contented. [ 446 ] In late July 2018 Facebook suspended the personal profile of InfoWars lead Alex Jones for 30 days. [ 459 ] In early August 2018, Facebook banned the four most active InfoWars -related pages for hate speech. [ 460 ]

political manipulation

As a dominant social-web service with massive outreach, Facebook have been used by identify or unidentified political operatives to affect public opinion. Some of these activities have been done in trespass of the platform policies, creating “ coordinated inauthentic behavior ”, subscribe or attacks. These activities can be scripted or paid. assorted such abusive campaign have been revealed in late years, good known being the russian intervention in the 2016 United States elections. In 2021, former Facebook analyst within the Spam and Fake Engagement teams, Sophie Zhang, reported more than 25 political subversion operations and criticized the general boring reaction time, oversightless, individualistic attitude by Facebook. [ 461 ] [ 462 ] [ 463 ]


In 2018, Facebook stated that during 2018 they had identified “ coordinated inauthentic demeanor ” in “ many Pages, Groups and accounts created to stir up political debate, including in the US, the Middle East, Russia and the UK. ” [ 464 ] Campaigns operated by the british intelligence agency unit, called Joint Threat Research Intelligence Group, have broadly fallen into two categories ; cyber attacks and propaganda efforts. The propaganda efforts utilize “ mass message ” and the “ pushing [ of ] stories ” via social media sites like Facebook. [ 465 ] [ 466 ] Israel ‘s jewish Internet Defense Force, China ‘s 50 Cent Party and Turkey ‘s AK Trolls besides focus their attention on social media platforms like Facebook. [ 467 ] [ 468 ] [ 469 ] [ 470 ] In July 2018, Samantha Bradshaw, co-author of the report from the Oxford Internet Institute ( OII ) at Oxford University, said that “ The number of countries where formally organised social media handling occurs has greatly increased, from 28 to 48 countries globally. The majority of emergence comes from political parties who spread disinformation and junk news program around election periods. ” [ 471 ] In October 2018, The Daily Telegraph reported that Facebook “ banned hundreds of pages and accounts that it says were fraudulently flooding its web site with partisan political subject – although they came from the United States alternatively of being associated with Russia. ” [ 472 ] In December 2018, The Washington Post reported that “ Facebook has suspended the account of Jonathon Morgan, the headman administrator of a top social media research firm ” New Knowledge, “ after reports that he and others engaged in an operation to spread disinformation ” on Facebook and Twitter during the 2017 United States Senate special election in Alabama. [ 473 ] [ 474 ] In January 2019, Facebook said it has removed 783 Iran -linked accounts, pages and groups for engaging in what it called “ coordinated inauthentic behavior ”. [ 475 ] In May 2019, Tel Aviv -based private intelligence agency Archimedes Group was banned from Facebook for “ coordinated inauthentic behavior ” after Facebook found imposter users in countries in sub-saharan Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia. [ 476 ] Facebook investigations revealed that Archimedes had spent some $ 1.1 million on bogus ads, paid for in brazilian reais, Israeli shekels and US dollars. [ 477 ] Facebook gave examples of Archimedes Group political hindrance in Nigeria, Senegal, Togo, Angola, Niger and Tunisia. [ 478 ] The Atlantic Council ‘s Digital Forensic Research Lab said in a report that “ The tactics employed by Archimedes Group, a private caller, close resemble the types of information war tactics much used by governments, and the Kremlin in especial. ” [ 479 ] [ 480 ] On May 23, 2019, Facebook released its Community Standards Enforcement Report highlighting that it has identified respective juke accounts through artificial intelligence and human monitor. In a period of six months, October 2018-March 2019, the social media website removed a sum of 3.39 billion forge accounts. The number of fake accounts was reported to be more than 2.4 billion real number people on the platform. [ 481 ] In July 2019, Facebook advanced its measures to counter deceptive political propaganda and other abuse of its services. The company removed more than 1,800 accounts and pages that were being operated from Russia, Thailand, Ukraine and Honduras. [ 482 ] After Russia ‘s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, it was announced that the internet regulative committee would block access to Facebook. [ 483 ] On October 30, 2019, Facebook deleted several accounts of the employees working at the Israeli NSO Group, stating that the accounts were “ deleted for not following our terms ”. The deletions came after WhatsApp sued the Israeli surveillance firm for targeting 1,400 devices with spyware. [ 484 ] In 2020, Facebook helped found American Edge, an anti-regulation lobby firm to fight anti-trust probes. [ 485 ] The Thailand government is forcing Facebook to take down a Facebook group called Royalist Marketplace with 1 million members following potentially illegal posts shared. The authority besides threatened the Facebook representative of facing criminal proceed. In response, Facebook is planning to take legal action against the thai government for suppression of freedom of construction and trespass of human rights. [ 486 ] In February 2021, Facebook removed the main foliate of the Myanmar military, after two protesters were shot and killed during the anti-coup protests. Facebook said that the foliate breached its guidelines that prohibit the incitation of ferocity. [ 487 ] On February 25, Facebook announced to ban all accounts of the Myanmar military, along with the “ Tatmadaw -linked commercial entities ”. Citing the “ exceptionally severe homo rights abuses and the clear risk of future military-initiated violence in Myanmar ”, the technical school giant besides implemented the move on its auxiliary, Instagram. [ 488 ] In March 2021, The Wall Street Journal ‘s editorial board criticized Facebook ‘s decision to fact-check its op-ed titled “ We ‘ll Have Herd immunity by April ” written by surgeon Marty Makary, calling it “ counter-opinion masquerade as fact check. ” [ 489 ] Facebook guidelines allow users to call for the death of public figures, they besides allow praise of aggregate killers and ‘violent non-state actors ‘ in some situations. [ 490 ] [ 491 ] In 2021, former Facebook analyst within the Spam and Fake Engagement teams, Sophie Zhang, reported on more than 25 political subversion operations she uncovered while in Facebook, and the general individualistic by the private enterprise. [ 461 ] [ 462 ] [ 463 ] In 2021, Facebook was cited as playing a character in the agitate of the 2021 United States Capitol attack. [ 492 ] [ 493 ]

russian interference

In 2018, Special Counsel Robert Mueller indicted 13 russian nationals and three russian organizations for “ prosecute in operations to interfere with U.S. political and electoral processes, including the 2016 presidential election. ” [ 494 ] [ 495 ] [ 496 ] Mueller contacted Facebook subsequently to the caller ‘s disclosure that it had sold more than $ 100,000 worth of ads to a company ( Internet Research Agency, owned by russian billionaire and businessman Yevgeniy Prigozhin ) with links to the russian news community before the 2016 United States presidential election. [ 497 ] [ 498 ] In September 2017, Facebook ‘s chief security policeman Alex Stamos wrote the company “ found approximately $ 100,000 in ad outgo from June 2015 to May 2017 – associated with roughly 3,000 ads – that was connected to about 470 inauthentic accounts and Pages in irreverence of our policies. Our analysis suggests these accounts and Pages were affiliated with one another and likely operated out of Russia. ” [ 499 ] Clinton and Trump campaigns exhausted $ 81 million on Facebook ads. [ 500 ] The ship’s company pledged broad cooperation in Mueller ‘s investigation, and provided all information about the russian advertisements. [ 501 ] Members of the House and Senate Intelligence Committees have claimed that Facebook had withheld information that could illuminate the russian propaganda campaign. [ 502 ] russian operatives have used Facebook polarize the american public discourses, organizing both Black Lives Matter rallies [ 503 ] [ 504 ] and anti-immigrant rallies on U.S. land, [ 505 ] american samoa well as anti-Clinton rallies [ 506 ] and rallies both for and against Donald Trump. [ 507 ] [ 508 ] Facebook ads have besides been used to exploit divisions over black political activism and Muslims by simultaneously sending reverse messages to unlike users based on their political and demographic characteristics in decree to sow disagree. [ 509 ] [ 510 ] [ 511 ] Zuckerberg has stated that he regrets having dismissed concerns over russian noise in the 2016 U.S. presidential election. [ 512 ] Russian-American billionaire Yuri Milner, who befriended Zuckerberg [ 513 ] between 2009 and 2011 had Kremlin backing for his investments in Facebook and Twitter. [ 514 ] In January 2019, Facebook removed 289 pages and 75 coordinate accounts linked to the russian state-owned news agency Sputnik which had misrepresented themselves as autonomous news or general interest pages. [ 515 ] [ 516 ] Facebook by and by identified and removed an extra 1,907 accounts linked to Russia found to be engaging in “ coordinated inauthentic behavior ”. [ 517 ] In 2018, a UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport ( DCMS ) select committee report had criticised Facebook for its reluctance to investigate mistreat of its platform by the russian politics, and for downplaying the extent of the trouble, referring to the ship’s company as ‘digital gangsters ‘. [ 518 ] [ 519 ] [ 520 ]

“ democracy is at risk from the malicious and persistent target of citizens with disinformation and personalised ‘dark adverts ‘ from unidentifiable sources, delivered through the major social media platforms we use every day, ” Damian Collins, DCMS Committee Chair [ 520 ]

In February 2019, Glenn Greenwald wrote that a cybersecurity ship’s company New Knowledge, which is behind one of the Senate reports on russian sociable media election hindrance, “ was caught just six weeks ago engaging in a massive scam to create assumed Russian troll accounts on Facebook and Twitter in rate to claim that the Kremlin was working to defeat democratic Senate campaigner Doug Jones in Alabama. The New York Times, when exposing the scam, quoted a New Knowledge report that boasted of its fabrications … ” [ 521 ] [ 522 ]

Anti-Rohingya propaganda

In 2018, Facebook took down 536 Facebook pages, 17 Facebook groups, 175 Facebook accounts, and 16 Instagram accounts linked to the Myanmar military. jointly these were followed by over 10 million people. [ 523 ] The New York Times reported that : [ 524 ]

after months of reports about anti-Rohingya propaganda on Facebook, the company acknowledged that it had been besides boring to act in Myanmar. By then, more than 700,000 Rohingya had fled the country in a year, in what United Nations officials called “ a textbook model of ethnic cleansing. ”

Anti-Muslim propaganda and Hindu nationalism in India

A 2019 reserve titled The Real Face of Facebook in India, co-author by the journalists Paranjoy Guha Thakurta and Cyril Sam, alleged that Facebook helped enable and benefited from the rise of Narendra Modi ‘s Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party ( BJP ) in India. [ 525 ] Ankhi Das, Facebook ‘s policy film director for India and South and Central Asia, apologized publicly in August 2020 for sharing a Facebook stake that called Muslims in India a “ pervert community ”. She said she shared the post “ to reflect my deep belief in celebrating feminism and civic participation ”. [ 526 ] She is reported to have prevented action by Facebook against anti-Muslim content [ 527 ] [ 528 ] and supported the BJP in internal Facebook messages. [ 529 ] [ 530 ] In 2020, Facebook executives overrode their employees ‘ recommendations that the BJP politician T. Raja Singh should be banned from the site for hate speech and rhetoric that could lead to ferocity. Singh had said on Facebook that Rohingya Muslim immigrants should be shot and had threatened to destroy mosques. Current and former Facebook employees told The Wall Street Journal that the decision was share of a convention of favoritism by Facebook toward the BJP as it seeks more commercial enterprise in India. [ 528 ] Facebook besides took no action after BJP politicians made posts accusing Muslims of intentionally spreading COVID-19, an employee said. [ 531 ] On August 31, 2020, the Delhi Assembly began investigating whether Facebook bore blasted for the 2020 religious riots in the city, claiming it had found Facebook “ prima facie guilty of a character in the violence ”. [ 532 ] [ 533 ] On September 12, 2020, a Delhi Assembly committee said in a statement that it had asked Facebook India head Ajit Mohan to appear before it on September 15, leading to Facebook object and moving the Supreme Court of India against the decision. [ 534 ] [ 535 ] On September 15, Facebook skipped the Delhi Assembly panel hear. [ 536 ] On September 20, the Delhi Assembly dialog box issued a modern notice asking Facebook to appear before it on September 23. [ 537 ] On September 22, Facebook India vice-president and managing director Ajit Mohan moved the Supreme Court against the summons of the Delhi Assembly Committee. [ 538 ] On September 23, the Supreme Court granted him stand-in and ordered a stay to the summons, with the Central government late backing the decisiveness. [ 539 ] [ 540 ] [ 541 ] A erstwhile Facebook employee told a Delhi Assembly empanel on November 13 that the ferocity could have been ‘easily averted ‘ if the social media giant had acted in a ‘proactive and prompt manner ‘. [ 542 ] On December 3, the Delhi Assembly moved the Supreme Court for intervention in the font. [ 543 ] On February 4, 2021, the Delhi Assembly panel issued a fresh notice to Facebook India to testify on the riots, avoiding specific notice to Mohan, by asking a aged, responsible military officer from the company to appear before the dialog box. [ 544 ] The Union government submitted in the Supreme Court that Facebook could not be made accountable before any state assembly and the committee formed was unconstitutional. [ 545 ] [ 546 ] On February 24, Mohan challenged summons issued by the Delhi fabrication for failing to appear before it as a witness in connection with the 2020 riots in the Supreme Court, saying that the ‘right to hush ‘ is a virtue in present ‘noisy times ‘ and the legislature had no authority to examine him in a law and rate encase. The Supreme Court reserved its judgment for the case. [ 547 ] On July 8, the Supreme Court refused to quash the summons and asked Facebook asked to appear before the Delhi forum empanel. [ 548 ]

company government

early Facebook investor and early Zuckerberg mentor Roger McNamee described Facebook as having “ the most centralized decision-making structure I have ever encountered in a large company. ” [ 549 ] Nathan Schneider, a professor of media studies at the University of Colorado Boulder argued for transforming Facebook into a platform cooperative owned and governed by the users. [ 550 ] Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes states that CEO Mark Zuckerberg has besides much world power, that the caller is now a monopoly, and that, as a resultant role, it should be split into multiple smaller companies. Hughes called for the dissolution of Facebook in an op-ed on The New York Times. Hughes says he ‘s concerned that Zuckerberg has surrounded himself with a team that does n’t challenge him and that as a result, it ‘s the U.S. politics ‘s job to hold him accountable and curb his “ unbridled power. ” [ 551 ] Hughes besides said that “ Mark ‘s ability is unprecedented and un-american. ” [ 552 ] Several U.S. politicians agree with Hughes. [ 553 ] EU Commissioner for Competition Margrethe Vestager has stated that splitting Facebook should alone be done as “ a redress of the very death recourse ”, and that splitting Facebook would not solve Facebook ‘s underlying problems. [ 554 ]


The company has been capable to repeated litigation. [ 555 ] [ 556 ] [ 557 ] [ 558 ] Its most big case addressed allegations that Zuckerberg broke an oral contract with Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra to build the then-named “ HarvardConnection ” social network in 2004. [ 559 ] [ 560 ] [ 561 ] On March 6, 2018, BlackBerry sued Facebook and its Instagram and WhatsApp subsection for ripping off key features of its message app. [ 562 ] In October 2018, a Texan charwoman sued Facebook, claiming she had been recruited into the sex craft at the age of 15 by a valet who “ friended ” her on the social media network. Facebook responded that it works both internally and externally to ban sex traffickers. [ 563 ] [ 564 ] In 2019, british solicitors representing a browbeat syrian schoolboy, sued Facebook over false claims. They claimed that Facebook protected outstanding figures from scrutiny rather of removing contentedness that violates its rules and that the special discussion was financially driven. [ 565 ] [ 566 ] The Federal Trade Commission and a alliance of New York express and 47 other submit and regional governments filed separate suits against Facebook on December 9, 2020, seeking antimonopoly action based on its acquisitions of Instagram and WhatsUp among other companies, calling these practices as anticompetitive. The suits besides assert that in acquiring these products, they weakened their privacy measures for their users. The suits, besides other fines, search to unwind the acquisitions from Facebook. [ 567 ] [ 568 ] On January 6, 2022, France ‘s data privacy regulative body CNIL fined Facebook a 60 million euros for not allowing its internet users an slowly refusal of cookies along with Google. [ 569 ]

Minors exposed to intimate message on VR apps

In February 2022, a BBC News research worker posing as a 13-year-old girl witnessed training, sexual fabric, racist insults and a rape menace on the VRChat app. The National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children heading of on-line child condom policy Andy Burrows added the probe had found “ a toxic combination of risks ”. The BBC research worker downloaded VRChat from an app shop on Facebook ‘s Meta Quest headset, with no historic period confirmation checks – the lone requirement being a Facebook bill. The BBC News research worker created a juke profile to set up her report – and her real identity was not checked. [ 570 ] [ 571 ] While Oculus has a kind where users can report pervert, the Center for Countering Digital Hate claims Meta rarely takes them seriously, reporting 100 policy violations on Oculus, they did not receive a reception. Imran Ahmed, the charity ’ sulfur headman executive, branded it “ a cesspool of hate, pornography and child dress. ” [ 572 ] [ 573 ]



A observer in The Washington Post noted that Facebook constitutes a “ massive depository of information that documents both our reactions to events and our evolving customs with a telescope and immediacy of which earlier historians could merely dream ”. [ 574 ] Especially for anthropologists, social researchers, and social historians—and subject to proper preservation and curation—the web site “ will preserve images of our lives that are vastly crisper and more nuanced than any lineage record in universe ”. [ 574 ]


Economists have noted that Facebook offers many non-rivalrous services that benefit as many users as are concern without forcing users to compete with each other. By contrast, most goods are available to a limited numeral of users. E.g., if one drug user buys a phone, no early drug user can buy that phone. Three areas add the most economic impact : chopine contest, the market rate and user behavior data. [ 575 ] Facebook began to reduce its carbon paper impact after Greenpeace attacked it for its long-run reliance on coal and resulting carbon footprint. [ 576 ] In 2021 Facebook announced that their global operations are supported by 100 percentage renewable energy and they have reached net zero emissions, a goal set in 2018. [ 577 ] [ 578 ] Facebook provides a exploitation platform for many social gambling, communication, feedback, review, and early applications related to online activities. This platform spawned many businesses and added thousands of jobs to the global economy. Zynga Inc., a drawing card in sociable gambling, is an exemplar of such a business. An econometric analysis found that Facebook ‘s app development platform added more than 182,000 jobs in the U.S. economy in 2011. The total economic respect of the add employment was about $ 12 billion. [ 579 ]


Facebook was one of the foremost large-scale social networks. In The Facebook Effect, David Kirkpatrick stated that Facebook ‘s structure makes it unmanageable to replace, because of its “ network effects “. [ neutrality is disputed ] As of 2016, it is estimated that 44 percentage of the US population gets newsworthiness through Facebook. [ 580 ]

mental and emotional health

Studies have associated social networks with positivist [ 581 ] and negative impacts [ 582 ] [ 583 ] [ 584 ] [ 585 ] [ 586 ] on emotional health. Studies have associated Facebook with feelings of envy, much triggered by vacation and holiday photos. other triggers include posts by friends about family happiness and images of physical beauty—such feelings leave people dissatisfied with their own lives. A joint study by two german universities discovered that one out of three people were more disgruntled with their lives after visiting Facebook, [ 587 ] [ 588 ] and another discipline by Utah Valley University found that college students felt worse about themselves following an increase in clock on Facebook. [ 588 ] [ 589 ] [ 590 ] Professor Larry D. Rosen stated that teenagers on Facebook expose more egotistic tendencies, while young adults show signs of antisocial behavior, mania and aggression. positive effects include signs of “ virtual empathy ” with on-line friends and helping introvert persons learn social skills. [ 591 ] A 2020 experimental study in the American Economic Review found that deactivating Facebook led to increased subjective wellbeing. [ 592 ] In a blog post in December 2017, the party highlighted research that has shown “ passively consuming ” the News Feed, as in reading but not interact, left users with negative feelings, whereas interacting with messages pointed to improvements in wellbeing. [ 593 ]


For broader coverage of this topic, see social media in politics In February 2008, a Facebook group called “ One Million Voices Against FARC ” organized an event in which hundreds of thousands of Colombians marched in protest against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia ( FARC ). [ 594 ] In August 2010, one of North Korea ‘s official politics websites and the nation ‘s official newsworthiness agency, Uriminzokkiri, joined Facebook. [ 595 ]
A world during the 2011 egyptian protests carrying a card saying “ Facebook, # jan25, The Egyptian Social Network ” During the Arab Spring many journalists claimed that Facebook played a major function in the 2011 egyptian revolution. [ 596 ] [ 597 ] On January 14, the Facebook page of “ We are all Khaled Said ” was started by Wael Ghoniem to invite the egyptian people to “ passive demonstrations ” on January 25. According to Mashable, [ unreliable source? ] in Tunisia and Egypt, Facebook became the elementary tool for connecting protesters and led the egyptian government to ban Facebook, Twitter and other websites on January 26 [ 598 ] then ban all mobile and Internet connections for all of Egypt on January 28. After 18 days, the get up force President Hosni Mubarak to resign. In a Bahraini rise that started on February 14, 2011, Facebook was utilized by the Bahraini government and regimen loyalists to identify, get and prosecute citizens involved in the protests. A 20-year-old woman named Ayat Al Qurmezi was identified as a demonstrator using Facebook and imprisoned. [ 599 ] In 2011, Facebook filed paperwork with the Federal Election Commission to form a political action committee under the name FB PAC. [ 600 ] In an electronic mail to The Hill, a spokesman for Facebook said “ Facebook Political Action Committee will give our employees a means to make their voice heard in the political work by supporting candidates who contribution our goals of promoting the value of invention to our economy while giving people the power to share and make the populace more candid and connected. ” [ 601 ] During the syrian civil war, the YPG, a libertarian united states army for Rojava recruited westerners through Facebook in its crusade against ISIL. [ 602 ] Dozens joined its ranks. The Facebook page ‘s mention “ The Lions of Rojava ” comes from a Kurdish saying which translates as “ A lion is a leo, whether it ‘s a female or a male ”, reflecting the organization ‘s feminist political orientation. [ 603 ] In late years, Facebook ‘s News Feed algorithms have been identified as a campaign of political polarization, for which it has been criticized. [ 604 ] [ 605 ] It has similarly been accused of amplifying the reach of ‘ forge news program ‘ and extreme viewpoints, as when it may have enabled conditions which led to the 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis. [ 606 ] [ 607 ] Facebook first played a character in the american english political work in January 2008, shortly before the New Hampshire primary. Facebook teamed up with ABC and Saint Anselm College to allow users to give live feedback about the “ back to back ” January 5 Republican and Democratic debates. [ 608 ] [ 609 ] [ 610 ] Facebook users took region in debate groups on specific topics, voter registration and message questions. [ 611 ] Over a million people installed the Facebook application “ US Politics on Facebook ” in ordain to take share which measured responses to specific comments made by the debate candidates. [ 612 ] A poll by CBS News, UWIRE and The Chronicle of Higher Education claimed to illustrate how the “ Facebook effect ” had affected youthful voters, increasing vote rates, confirm of political candidates, and general participation. [ 613 ] The new social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, connected hundreds of millions of people. By 2008, politicians and pastime groups were experimenting with systematic consumption of social media to spread their message. [ 614 ] [ 615 ] By the 2016 election, political ad to specific groups had become normalize. Facebook offered the most sophisticate target and analytics platform. [ 616 ] ProPublica noted that their system enabled advertisers to direct their pitches to about 2,300 people who expressed concern in the topics of “ Jew hater, ” “ How to burn Jews, ” or, “ history of ‘why Jews ruin the world ”. [ 617 ] Facebook has used several initiatives to encourage its users to register to vote and vote. An experiment in 2012 involve showing Facebook users pictures of their friends who reported that they had voted ; users who were shown the pictures were about 2 % more probably to report that they had besides voted compared to the control group, which was not encouraged to vote. [ 618 ] In 2020, Facebook announced the goal of helping four million voters register in the US, saying that it had registered 2.5 million by September. [ 619 ] The Cambridge Analytica data scandal offered another exercise of the perceived try to influence elections. [ 620 ] [ 621 ] The Guardian claimed that Facebook knew about the security breach for two years, but did nothing to stop it until it became public. [ 622 ] Facebook banned political ads to prevent the manipulation of voters in the US ‘s November ‘s election. industry experts suggested [ clarification needed ] that there are several other ways for misinformation to reach voters on social media platforms and blocking political ads will not serve as a prove solution to the problem. [ 623 ]


ahead of the 2019 general elections in India, Facebook has removed 103 pages, groups and accounts on Facebook and Instagram platforms originating from Pakistan. Facebook said its investigation found a Pakistani military radio link, along with a blend of real accounts of ISPR employees, and a network of bogus accounts created by them that have been operating military fan pages, general interest pages but were posting subject about indian politics while trying to conceal their identity. [ 624 ] Owing to the like reasons, Facebook besides removed 687 pages and accounts of Congress because of coordinated inauthentic behavior on the platform. [ 625 ]


Facebook and Zuckerberg have been the subject of music, books, film and television. The 2010 film The Social Network, directed by David Fincher and written by Aaron Sorkin, stars Jesse Eisenberg as Zuckerberg and went on to win three Academy Awards and four Golden Globes. In 2008, Collins English Dictionary declared “ Facebook ” as its new Word of the Year. [ 626 ] In December 2009, the New Oxford American Dictionary declared its son of the year to be the verb “ unfriend “, defined as “ To remove person as a ‘ friend ‘ on a social network site such as Facebook ”. [ 627 ]


In August 2013, Facebook founded Internet.org in collaboration with six other technology companies to plan and help build low-cost Internet access for developing and developing countries. [ 628 ] The overhaul, called spare Basics, includes versatile low-bandwidth applications such as AccuWeather, BabyCenter, BBC News, ESPN, and Bing. [ 629 ] [ 630 ] There was hard resistance to Internet.org in India, where the service started in partnership with Reliance Communications in 2015 was banned a class late by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India ( TRAI ). In 2018, Zuckerberg claimed that “ Internet.org efforts have helped about 100 million people get access to the internet who may not have had it differently. ” [ 629 ]


Facebook announced in 2021 that it will make an effort to stop disinformation about climate exchange. The company will use George Mason University, Yale Program on Climate Change Communication and the University of Cambridge as sources of information. The ship’s company will expand its information hub on climate to 16 countries. Users in others countries will be directed to the locate of the United Nations Environment Programme for information. [ 631 ]

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