Eton College ( ) [ 3 ] is a public school in Eton, Berkshire, England. It was founded in 1440 by Henry VI under the name Kynge’s College of Our Ladye of Eton besyde Windesore, [ 4 ] [ 5 ] intended as a baby mental hospital to King ‘s College, Cambridge, making it the 18th-oldest Headmasters ‘ and Headmistresses ‘ Conference ( HMC ) school. Eton is peculiarly long-familiar for its history, wealth, and celebrated alumni ( Old Etonians ). [ 6 ]
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Eton is one of only three public schools, along with Harrow ( 1572 ) and Radley ( 1847 ), to retain the boys-only, boarding-only tradition, which means that its boys live at the school seven days a week. The remainder ( such as Rugby in 1976, Charterhouse in 1971, Westminster in 1973, [ 7 ] and Shrewsbury in 2015 ) have since become co-educational or, in the case of Winchester, [ 8 ] as of 2021 are undergoing the passage to that condition. Eton has educated prime ministers, world leaders, Nobel laureates, Academy Award and BAFTA award-winning actors, and generations of the gentry, having been referred to as “ the harbor of England ‘s statesmen. ” [ 9 ] The school is the largest boarding school in England ahead of Millfield and Oundle. [ 10 ] Eton charges up to £48,501 per class [ 11 ] ( £14,698 per term, with three terms per academic year, for 2022 ). [ 12 ] Eton was noted as being the sixth most expensive HMC boarding school in the UK in 2013–14 ; [ 13 ] however, the school admits some boys with humble parental income : [ 14 ] in 2011 it was reported that around 250 boys received “ meaning ” fiscal help from the educate, [ 15 ] with the calculate rising to 263 pupils in 2014, receiving the equivalent of around 60 % of school fee aid, whilst a further 63 received their education release of charge. Eton has besides announced plans to increase the figure to around 320 pupils, with 70 educated free of charge, with the intention that the phone number of pupils receiving fiscal aid from the school continues to increase. [ 14 ]
history [edit ]
Stanberry Window ( 1923 ) in Hereford Cathedral, showing Bishop John Stanberry advising King Henry VI on the establish of Eton College Eton College in 1690, in an engraving by David Loggan Eton College was founded by King Henry VI as a charity school to provide free education to 70 inadequate boys who would then go on to King ‘s College, Cambridge, founded by the like King in 1441. Henry took Winchester College as his model, visiting on many occasions, borrowing its statutes and removing its headmaster and some of the scholars to start his new educate. When Henry VI founded the school, he granted it a big act of endowments, including a lot valuable country. The group of feoffees appointed by the king to receive confiscate lands of the Alien Priories for the endowment of Eton were as follows : [ 16 ]
It was intended to have formidable buildings ( Henry intended the nave of the College Chapel to be the longest in Europe ) and respective religious relics, purportedly including a part of the True Cross and the Crown of Thorns. [ 18 ] He persuaded the then Pope, Eugene IV, to grant him a privilege unparalleled anywhere in England : the properly to grant indulgences to penitents on the Feast of the Assumption. The college besides came into possession of one of England ‘s Apocalypse manuscripts. however, when Henry was deposed by King Edward IV in 1461, the new King annulled all grants to the school and removed most of its assets and treasures to St George ‘s Chapel, Windsor, on the other english of the River Thames. Legend has it that Edward ‘s schoolmarm, Jane Shore, intervened on the school ‘s behalf. She was able to save a good part of the educate, [ 19 ] although the royal bequest and the number of staff were a lot reduced. construction of the chapel service, primitively intended to be slenderly all over twice a retentive, [ 20 ] with 18, or possibly 17, bays ( there are eight today ) was stopped when Henry VI was deposed. alone the Quire of the intend build was completed. Eton ‘s first Headmaster, William Waynflete, founder of Magdalen College, Oxford and previously Head Master of Winchester College, [ 21 ] built the ante-chapel that completed the chapel. The important wall paintings in the chapel service and the brick north range of the present School Yard besides date from the 1480s ; the lower floor of the cloister, including College Hall, were built between 1441 and 1460. [ 22 ] As the school suffered boil down income while still under construction, the completion and promote development of the school has since depended to some extent on affluent benefactors. construction resumed when Roger Lupton was Provost, around 1517. His identify is borne by the boastfully gatehouse in the west compass of the cloisters, fronting School Yard, possibly the most celebrated visualize of the school. This range includes the crucial interiors of the Parlour, Election Hall, and Election Chamber, where most of the eighteenth hundred “ leaving portraits ” are kept. “ After Lupton ‘s time, nothing authoritative was built until about 1670, when Provost Allestree gave a compass to close the west side of School Yard between Lower School and Chapel ”. [ 23 ] This was remodelled late and completed in 1694 by Matthew Bankes, Master Carpenter of the Royal Works. The survive important addition to the central college buildings was the College Library, in the south image of the religious residence, 1725–29, by Thomas Rowland. It has a very crucial solicitation of books and manuscripts .
nineteenth century onwards [edit ]
The Duke of Wellington is often falsely quoted as saying that “ The Battle of Waterloo was won on the playing-fields of Eton. ” [ 24 ] Wellington was at Eton from 1781 to 1784 and was to send his sons there. According to Nevill ( citing the historian Sir Edward Creasy ), what Wellington said, while passing an Eton cricket match many decades later, was, “ There grows the stuff that won Waterloo ”, [ 25 ] a comment Nevill construes as a citation to “ the manly character induced by games and mutant ” among english youth by and large, not a comment about Eton specifically. In 1889, Sir William Fraser conflated this uncorroborated note with the one attributed to him by Count Charles de Montalembert ‘s C’est ici qu’a été gagné la bataille de Waterloo ( “ It is here that the Battle of Waterloo was won ” ). The architect John Shaw Jr ( 1803–1870 ) became surveyor to Eton. He designed New Buildings ( 1844–46 ), [ 26 ] Provost Francis Hodgson ‘s addition to providing better adjustment for collegers, who until then had largely lived in Long Chamber, a long first-floor board where conditions were inhumane. [ 27 ] Following complaints about the finances, buildings and management of Eton, the Clarendon Commission was set up in 1861 as a royal commission to investigate the state of matter of nine schools in England, including Eton. [ 28 ] Questioned by the commission in 1862, headmaster Edward Balston came under attack for his view that in the classroom small prison term could be spared for subjects other than classical studies. [ 29 ]
An Eton College classroom in the nineteenth hundred As with other public schools, [ 30 ] a dodge was devised towards the end of the nineteenth century to familiarise inside schoolboys with social conditions in deprive areas. [ 31 ] The undertaking of establishing an “ Eton Mission “ in the push district of Hackney Wick in east London was started at the beginning of 1880, and it lasted until 1971 when it was decided that a more local project ( at Dorney ) would be more realistic. however over the years much money was raised for the Eton Mission, a fine church service by G. F. Bodley was erected ; many Etonians visit and stimulated among other things the Eton Manor Boys ‘ Club, a celebrated row club which has survived the Mission itself, and the 59 Club for motorcyclists .
Pupils at Eton College dressed as members of versatile rowing crews taking part in the “ Procession of Boats ” on the River Thames during the “ Fourth of June ” celebrations 1932 The very boastfully and flowery School Hall and School Library ( by L. K. Hall ) were erected in 1906–08 across the road from Upper School as the school ‘s memorial to the Etonians who had died in the Boer War. many tablets in the cloisters and chapel commemorate the big number of all in Etonians of the First World War. A bomb calorimeter destroyed part of Upper School in World War II and blew out many windows in the chapel service. The college commissioned replacements by Evie Hone ( 1949–52 ) and by John Piper and Patrick Reyntiens ( 1959 forth ). Among headmasters of the twentieth century were Cyril Alington, Robert Birley and Anthony Chenevix-Trench. M. R. James was a provost. In 1959, the college constructed a nuclear bunker to firm the college ‘s provost and fellows. The facility is immediately used for storage. [ 32 ] In 1969 Dillibe Onyeama became the first black person to obtain his school-leaving certificate from Eton. Three years subsequently Onyeama was banned from visiting Eton after he published a book which described the racism that he experienced during his time at the school. [ 33 ] Simon Henderson, current headmaster of Eton, apologised to Onyeama for the treatment he endured during his fourth dimension at the educate, although Onyeama did not think the apology was necessary. [ 34 ] In 2005, the school was one of fifty of the area ‘s moderate autonomous schools found to have breached the Competition Act 1998 ( see Eton College controversies ). In 2011, plans to attack Eton College were found on the body of a senior al-qaeda drawing card shot dead in Somalia. [ 35 ]
coating of arms [edit ]
Sable, three lily-flowers argent on a chief per pale azure and gules in the dexter a fleur-de-lys in the sinister a lion passant guardant or Arms of Eton College : The coat of arms of Eton College was granted in 1449 by the fall through King Henry VI, equally recorded as follows on the original charter, attested by the Great Seal of England and preserved in the College archives : [ 36 ]
- On a field sable three lily-flowers argent, intending that Our newly-founded College, lasting for ages to come, whose perpetuity We wish to be signified by the stability of the sable colour, shall bring forth the brightest flowers redolent of every kind of knowledge; to which also, that We may impart something of royal nobility which may declare the work truly royal and illustrious, We have resolved that that portion of the arms which by royal right belong to Us in the Kingdoms of France and England be placed on the chief of the shield, per pale azure with a flower of the French, and gules with a leopard passant or.
therefore the coat of arms is : Sable, three lily-flowers argent on a chief per pale azure and gules in the dexter a fleur-de-lys in the sinister a lion passant guardant or. Although the charter specifies that the lily-flowers relate to the founder ‘s hope for a thrive of cognition, that bloom is besides a symbol for the Virgin Mary, in whose honour the college was founded, with the count of three having meaning to the Blessed Trinity. The motto of the college is Floreat Etona ( “ may Eton flourish ” ). The grant of arms to King ‘s College, Cambridge, is worded identically, but with roses rather of lily-flowers. [ 36 ]
overview [edit ]
Eton College The school is headed by a provost and fellows ( board of governors ) who appoint the headmaster. It contains 25 boys ‘ houses, each headed by a housemaster, selected from the more senior members of the education staff, which numbers some 155. [ 37 ] Almost all of the educate ‘s pupils go on to universities, about a third of them to Oxford or Cambridge. [ 38 ] The headmaster is a member of the Headmasters ‘ and Headmistresses ‘ conference and the school is a penis of the Eton Group of freelancer schools in the United Kingdom. Eton has a long list of distinguish former pupils. In 2019, Boris Johnson became the twentieth british prime minister to have attended the school, [ 39 ] and the fifth since the end of the Second World War [ 40 ] Previous Conservative drawing card David Cameron was the 19th british prime minister to have attended the school, [ 41 ] [ 42 ] and recommended that Eton set up a educate in the state sector to help drive up standards. [ 43 ]
fame [edit ]
Eton has been described as the most celebrated populace school in the worldly concern, [ 44 ] and has been referred to as “ the foreman nurse of England ‘s statesmen ”. [ 45 ] Eton has educated generations of british and alien nobility, and for the first time, members of the british imperial family in direct line of succession : prince William and his brother Prince Harry, in contrast to the royal tradition of male education at either naval college or Gordonstoun, or by tutors. The Good Schools Guide called the school “ the numeral one son ‘ public school ”, adding that “ The teach and facilities are second to none. ” [ 46 ] The school is a member of the G30 Schools Group. Eton today is a larger school than it has been for much of its history. In 1678, there were 207 boys. In the late eighteenth hundred, there were about 300, while nowadays, the total has risen to over 1,300. [ 47 ] [ 48 ]
Eton College, Provost ‘s Garden
fiscal support [edit ]
about 20 % of pupils at Eton receive fiscal support, through a range of bursaries and scholarships. [ 49 ] A late Head Master, Tony Little, said that Eton was developing plans to allow any son to attend the school whatever his parents ‘ income and, in 2011, said that around 250 boys received “ significant ” fiscal avail from the school. [ 15 ] In early 2014, this visualize had risen to 263 pupils receiving the equivalent of around 60 % of school fee aid, whilst a further 63 received their education free of tear. Little said that, in the short-circuit term, he wanted to ensure that around 320 pupils per year experience bursaries and that 70 were educated exempt of charge, with the purpose that the number of pupils receiving fiscal aid would continue to increase. [ 14 ]
Changes to the school [edit ]
registration at give birth, corporal punishment, and fagging are no farseeing practised at Eton. [ 50 ] [ 51 ] [ 52 ] Academic standards were raised, and by the mid-1990s Eton ranked among Britain ‘s exceed three schools in getting its pupils into Oxford and Cambridge. [ 53 ] The symmetry of boys at the school who were sons of Old Etonians fell from 60 % in 1960 to 20 % in 2016. This has been attributed to a number of factors, including the dissolving of the house lists, which allowed Old Etonians to register their sons at birth, in 1990, harder entrance examinations as the emphasis on academic attainment increased, a crisp raise in educate fees increasingly beyond the means of many UK families, and increased applications from external, often identical affluent, families. [ 54 ]
school terms [edit ]
There are three academic terms [ 55 ] ( known as halves ) [ 56 ] in the class :
- The Michaelmas Half, from early September to mid-December. New boys are now admitted only at the start of the Michaelmas Half, unless in exceptional circumstances.
- The Lent Half, from mid-January to late March.
- The Summer Half, from late April to late June or early July.
They are called halves because the school year was once split into two halves, between which the boys went home plate .
Boys ‘ houses [edit ]
King ‘s Scholars [edit ]
One board firm, College, is reserved for 70 King ‘s Scholars, [ citation needed ] who attend Eton on scholarships provided by the original foundation and awarded by interrogation each year ; King ‘s Scholars pay up to 90 per cent of entire fees, depending on their means. Of the other pupils, up to a third receive some kind of bursary or scholarship. The list ‘King ‘s Scholars ‘ refers to the initiation of the school by King Henry VI in 1440. The original school consisted of the 70 Scholars ( in concert with some Commensals ) and the Scholars were educated and boarded at the foundation ‘s expense. King ‘s Scholars are entitled to use the letters ‘KS ‘ after their name and they can be identified by a black gown wear over the top of their tailcoats, giving them the dub ‘tugs ‘ ( latin : togati, wearers of gowns ) ; and occasionally by a surplice in Chapel. The house is looked after by the Master in College. Having succeeded in the examination, they include many of the most academically gifted boys in the school .
Oppidans [edit ]
As the school grew, more students were allowed to attend provided that they paid their own fees and lived in boarding-houses within the town of Eton, outside the college ‘s original buildings. These students became known as Oppidans, from the Latin word oppidum, meaning “ town ”. [ 57 ] The houses developed over time as a mean of providing residency for the Oppidans in a more congenial manner, and during the 18th and 19th centuries the housemasters started to rely more for administrative purposes on a senior female penis of staff, known as a “ dame ”, who became creditworthy for the physical wellbeing of the boys. ( Some houses had previously been run by dames without a housemaster. ) Each theater typically contains about 50 boys. Although classes are organised on a school basis, most boys spend a large proportion of their time in their house. not all boys who pass the college election interrogation choose to become King ‘s Scholars, which involves surviving in “ College ” with its own ancient traditions, wearing a gown, and consequently a degree of separation from the other boys. If they choose rather to belong to one of the 24 Oppidan houses, they are known as Oppidan Scholars. [ 58 ] Oppidan scholarships may besides be awarded for systematically performing with distinction in school and external examinations. To gain an Oppidan Scholarship, a boy must have either three distinctions in a course or four throughout his career. Within the school, an Oppidan Scholar is entitled to use the post-nominal letters OS. Each Oppidan house is normally referred to by the initials ( forenames and surname ) of its current housemaster, a elder teacher ( “ beak ” ), or more formally by his surname alone, not by the name of the build in which it is situated. Houses occasionally barter buildings according to the longevity of the housemaster and the physical sex appeal of the build. The names of buildings occupied by houses are used for few purposes other than a parallelism address. They are : Godolphin House, Jourdelay ‘s ( both built as such c. 1720 ), [ 59 ] Hawtrey House, Durnford House ( the first two built as such by the Provost and Fellows, 1845, [ 59 ] when the school was increasing in numbers and needed more centralize control ), The Hopgarden, South Lawn, Waynflete, Evans ‘s, Keate House, Warre House, Villiers House, Common Lane House, Penn House, Walpole House, Cotton Hall, Wotton House, Holland House, Mustians, Angelo ‘s, Manor House, Farrer House, Baldwin ‘s Bec, The Timbralls, and Westbury .
House structure [edit ]
Front of Eton College In addition to the house master, each house has a house captain and a sign of the zodiac master of games. Some houses have more than one. House prefects were once elected from the oldest class, but this no longer happens. The previous term, “ Library ”, survives in the name of the room set apart for the oldest year ‘s use, where boys have their own kitchen. similarly, boys in their penultimate year have a room known as “ Debate ”. There are stallion house gatherings every even, normally around 8:05–8:30 p.m. These are known as “ Prayers ”, due to their original nature. The theater overlord and boys have an opportunity to make announcements, and sometimes the boy leave lighter entertainment. For much of Eton ‘s history, junior boys had to act as “ fags ”, or servants, to older boys. Their duties included cleanse, cook, and running errands. A library penis was entitled to yell at any time and without notice, “ Boy, up ! ” or “ Boy, Queue ! “, and all freshman boys had to come run. The final male child to arrive was given the job. These practices, known as tire, were partially phased out of most houses in the 1970s. Captains of theater and games hush sometimes give tasks to freshman boys, such as collecting the mail from the school office. [ 60 ] There are many inter-house competitions, largely in sports .
head Masters : 1442–present [edit ]
uniform [edit ]
The School is known for its traditions, including a undifferentiated of black dress suit ( or morning coat ) and black vest, a starch firm collar and black pinstriped trousers. Most student wear a white “ tie “ which is a narrow strip of fabric folded over the joint of the collar to hide the collar stud, but some senior boys are entitled to wear a white bow draw and winged collar ( “ Stick-Ups ” ). There are some variations in the school trim worn by boys in authority, see School Prefects and King ‘s Scholars sections. The long-standing impression that the deliver uniform was first wear as mourning for the death of King George III in 1820 [ 61 ] is baseless. In 1862 headmaster Edward Balston, in an interview with the Clarendon Commission, noted little in the way of uniform .
Lord Clarendon : One more question, which bears in some academic degree upon other schools, namely with regard to the dress. The boys do not wear any particular dress at Eton ? Edward Balston : No, with the exception that they are obliged to wear a white neckcloth. Lord Clarendon : Is the discolor of their clothes much restricted ? Edward Balston : We would not let them wear for case a jaundiced coat or any other semblance very much out of the way. Lord Clarendon : If they do not adopt anything very extravagant either with regard to colour or cut you allow them to follow their own sample with obedience to the option of their clothes ? Edward Balston : Yes. Lord Lyttelton : They must wear the common cycle hat ? Edward Balston : Yes. [ 62 ]
The uniform tire today was gradually adopted and standardised towards the end of the nineteenth hundred. [ 63 ] Until 1967, boys under the acme of 5’4 ” ( 1.63 m ) wore a snip jacket ( known as an Eton jacket, batch jacket, or “ bum-freezer ” ) alternatively of a dress suit. [ 64 ]
Tutors and teaching [edit ]
Teachers are known unofficially as “ beaks ”. The student to teacher proportion is 8:1, [ 65 ] which is highly low by distinctive UK school standards. class size beginning at approximately twenty to twenty-five in the first year and are frequently below ten by the final year. The original course of study concentrated on prayers, Latin and devotion, and “ american samoa former as 1530 no Greek was taught ”. [ 66 ] late the vehemence was on classical studies, dominated by Latin and Ancient History, and, for boys with sufficient ability, Classical Greek. From the latter character of the nineteenth century this course of study has changed and broadened : [ 67 ] for model, there are now more than 100 students of Chinese, which is a non-curriculum course. [ 68 ] In the 1970s, there was good one school calculator, in a belittled board attached to the skill buildings. It used punch tape to storehouse programs. nowadays, all boys must have laptop computers, and the school fiber-optic network connects all classrooms and all boys ‘ bedrooms to the internet. [ 69 ]
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The chief duty for a boy ‘s studies lies with his House Master, but he is assisted by an extra director of studies, known as a coach. [ 70 ] Classes, formally known as “ divisions ” ( “ divs ” ), are organised on a School footing ; the classrooms are freestanding from the houses. New blocks of classrooms have appeared every decade or so since New Schools, designed by Henry Woodyer and built 1861–63. [ 71 ] Despite the introduction of modern technology, the external appearance and locations of many of the classrooms have remained unchanged for a long time. The oldest classroom still in use, “ Lower School ”, dates from the fifteenth century. Every even, about an hour and a quarter, known as quiet Hour, is set aside, during which boys are expected to study or prepare bring for their teachers if not differently engaged. [ 72 ] Some Houses, at the discretion of the House Master, may observe a second gear Quiet Hour after prayers in the evening. This is less dinner dress, with boys being allowed to visit each other ‘s rooms to socialise if neither son has work outstanding. The Independent Schools Inspectorate ‘s report for 2016 says, “ The accomplishment of pupils is exceeding. progress and abilities of all pupils are at a high level. Pupils are highly successful in populace examinations, and the commemorate of entrance to universities with demanding entrance requirements in the United Kingdom and oversea is solid. ” [ 73 ] In 2017, a skill, engineering, engineering, and mathematics ( STEM ) schools skills ranking postpone, designed to show employability, showed the school performed disproportionally badly, falling to 109th target and behind many state schools. Edwina Dunn, the president of the company producing the report, called for schools to be reassessed based on how suitable pupils are for businesses in the post-Brexit world. [ 74 ]
School magazines [edit ]
The Chronicle is the official school magazine, having been founded in 1863. [ 75 ] It is edited by boys at the school. Although liable to censorship, it has a custom of satirising and attacking school policies, angstrom well as documenting recent events. The Oppidan, founded in 1828, [ 75 ] was published once a half ; it covered all sport in Eton and some professional events as well, but no longer exists. other school magazines, including The Spectrum ( the Academic Yearbook ), The Arts Review, and The Eton Zeitgeist have been published, american samoa well as publications produced by individual departments such as Etonomics ( economics ), The Axiom ( mathematics ), Scientific Etonian ( science ), Praed ( poetry and song ), The Ampersand ( English ), Biopsy ( Medicine ) and The Lexicon ( modern languages ). Some school magazines besides have an on-line presence. [ 76 ]
Societies [edit ]
At Eton, there are many organisations known as ‘societies ‘, in many of which pupils come together to discuss a particular topic or to listen to a lecture, presided over by a senior student, and frequently including a guest speaker. [ 77 ] At any one time there are about fifty societies and clubs in being, catering for a wide range of interests and largely run by boys. Societies tend to come and go, depending on the especial enthusiasms of the masters and boys in the school at the fourth dimension, but some have been in universe for many years. Those in being at present include : aeronautical, African, Alexander Cozens ( Art ), Amnesty, Archeological, Architectural, Astronomy, Balfour, Banks ( conservation ), Caledonian, Cheese, Classical, Comedy, Cosmopolitan, Debating, Design, Entrepreneurship, Francophone, Geographical, Geopolitical, Global, Henry Fielding, Hispanic, History, Keynes ( economics ), Law, Literary, Mathematical, Medical, Middle Eastern, Model United Nations, Modern Languages, Oriental, Orwell ( leftist ), Simeon ( Christian ), Parry ( music ), Photographic, Political, Praed ( poetry ), Rock ( music ), Rous ( horseman ), Salisbury ( once diplomatic, immediately colonial history ), Savile ( Rare Books and Manuscripts ), Shelley, Scientific, Sports, Tech Club, Theatre, Wellington ( military ), Wine and Wotton ‘s ( philosophy ). Among by guest speakers are Rowan Atkinson, [ citation needed ] Jeremy Burge, [ 78 ] Ralph Fiennes, King Constantine II of Greece, Kit Hesketh-Harvey, [ 79 ] Anthony Horowitz, [ 80 ] John Major, [ 81 ] Boris Johnson, Ian McKellen, [ 82 ] J. K. Rowling, Katie Price, Kevin Warwick, [ 83 ] Andrew Lloyd Webber, [ 84 ] Vivienne Westwood, [ 85 ] Terry Wogan [ 86 ] and Alan Yau. [ 87 ]
Grants and prizes [edit ]
Prizes are awarded on the results of trials ( home examination ), GCSE and AS-levels. In addition, many subjects and activities have particularly endowed prizes, respective of which are awarded by visiting experts. The most prestigious is the Newcastle Scholarship, awarded on the strength of an interrogation, consisting of two papers in philosophic theology, moral hypothesis and apply ethics. besides of note is the Gladstone Memorial Prize and the Coutts Prize, awarded on the results of trials and AS-level examinations in C block ( Year 12 ) ; and the Huxley Prize, awarded for a project on a scientific subject. other specialist prizes include the Newcastle Classical Prize ; the Rosebery exhibition for History ; the Queen ‘s Prizes for French and German ; the Duke of Newcastle ‘s russian Prize ; the Beddington Spanish Prize ; the Strafford and Bowman Shakespeare Prizes ; the Tomline and Russell Prizes in Mathematics ; the Sotheby Prize for History of Art ; the Waddington Prize for Theology and Philosophy ; the Birley Prize for History ; the Rorie Mackenzie Prize for Modern Languages ; the Robert Boyle Prize for Physics. The Lower Boy Rosebery Prize ; the Wilder Prize for Theology and The Hervey Verse Prize for poetry in elder years. Prizes are awarded besides for excellence in such activities as paint, sculpture, ceramics, playing musical instruments, musical composition, declamation, silverwork, and blueprint. versatile benefactions make it possible to give grants each year to boys who wish, for educational or cultural reasons, to work or travel afield. These include the Busk Fund, which supports individual ventures that show particular inaugural ; the C. M. Wells Memorial Trust Fund, for the promotion of visits to authoritative lands ; the Sadler Fund, which supports, among others, those intending to enter the Foreign Service ; and the Marsden Fund, for travel in countries where the chief terminology is not english .
Incentives and sanctions [edit ]
Eton has a well-established system for encouraging boys to produce high-standard oeuvre. An excellent musical composition of shape may be rewarded with a “ Show Up ”, to be shown to the male child ‘s tutors as evidence of build up. [ 88 ] If, in any particular term, a schoolchild makes a peculiarly good effort in any subject, he may be “ Commended for good Effort ” to the Head Master ( or Lower Master ). If any boy produces an outstanding musical composition of sour, it may be “ Sent Up For Good ”, [ 88 ] storing the attempt in the College Archives for descendants. This award has been around since the eighteenth century. As Sending Up For Good is reasonably infrequent, the process is preferably mysterious to many of Eton ‘s boys. First, the chief wishing to Send Up For Good must gain the license of the relevant Head of Department. Upon receiving his or her approval, the man of ferment will be marked with Sent Up For Good and the student will receive a batting order to be signed by House Master, tutor and division master. The face-to-face of a Show Up is a “ Rip ”. [ 89 ] This is for sub-standard sour, which is sometimes torn at the top of the page/sheet and must be submitted to the male child ‘s housemaster for signature. Boys who accumulate rips are liable to be given a “ White slate ”, a form of a progress report which must be signed at intervals by all his teachers and may be accompanied by other punishments, normally involving doing domestic chores or writing lines. In late times, [ when? ] a mild form of the rake, ‘sign for information ‘, colloquially known as an “ information ”, has been introduced, which must besides be signed by the boy ‘s housemaster and tutor. Internal examinations are held at the end of the Michaelmas one-half ( i.e. fall term ) for all pupils, and in the Summer half for those in the first, second and fourthly years ( i.e. those not taking a broad plant of public examinations ). These internal examinations are called “ Trials ”. [ 90 ] A boy who is late for any division or early appointments may be required to sign “ Tardy Book ”, a cross-file keep in the School Office, between 7:35 am and 7:45 am, every dawn for the duration of his conviction ( typically three days ). [ 91 ] Tardy Book may besides be issued for late study. For more serious misdeeds, a boy is placed “ on the Bill ”, which involves him being summoned by the sudden entry of a prefect into one of his divisions, who announces in a forte and ball tone that at a given clock time a certain student must attend the position of the Head Master, or Lower maestro if the son is in the lower two years, to talk personally about his misdeeds. [ 92 ] The most serious misdeeds may result in expulsion, or rustication ( suspension ) or in former times, beating. conversely, should a master be more than 15 minutes late for a class, traditionally the pupils may claim it as a “ run ” and lacking themselves for the rest of its duration, provided they report their intention so to do at the school office. A traditional punishment took the form of being made to copy, by bridge player, Latin hexameters. Offenders were frequently set 100 hexameters by library members, or, for more dangerous offences, Georgics ( more than 500 hexameters ) by their House Masters or the Head Master. [ 93 ] The giving of a Georgic is immediately highly rare, but hush occasionally occurs .
corporal punishment [edit ]
Eton used to be renowned for its use of bodied punishment, generally known as “ drum ”. In the sixteenth hundred, Friday was set aside as “ cane day ”. [ 94 ] A particular wooden birch obstruct was used for the function, with the boy being directed to fetch it and then kneel over it. John Keate, Head Master from 1809 to 1834, took over at a time when discipline was poor people. Until 1964, offending boys could be summoned to the Head Master or the Lower Master, as appropriate, to receive a birch on the bare later, in a semi-public ceremony held in the Library, where there was a special wooden birch blocking over which the wrongdoer was held. Anthony Chenevix-Trench, Head Master from 1964 to 1970, abolished the birch and replaced it with can, besides applied to the bare buttocks, which he administered privately in his office. [ 95 ] Chenevix-Trench besides abolished bodied punishment administered by aged boys. previously, House Captains were permitted to cane offenders over the seat of the trousers. This was a everyday happening, carried out privately with the boy flex over with his head under the edge of a table. Less coarse but more severe were the canings administered by Pop ( see Eton Society below ) in the form of a “ Pop-Tanning ”, in which a large number of arduous strokes were inflicted by the President of Pop in the presence of all Pop members ( or, in earlier times, each member of Pop took it in turns to inflict a throw ). The perpetrator was summoned to appear in a pair of old trousers, as the caning would cut the fabric to shreds. This was the most severe shape of physical punishment at Eton. [ 96 ] Chenevix-Trench ‘s successor from 1970, Michael McCrum, retained private corporal punishment by masters but ended the practice of requiring boys to take their trousers and underpants down when bending over to be caned by the Head Master. By the mid-1970s, the only people allowed to administer caning were the Head Master and the Lower Master. [ 97 ] Beating was phased out in the 1980s. The film film director Sebastian Doggart claims to have been the last boy caned at Eton, in 1984. [ 98 ]
Prefects [edit ]
In accession to the masters, the play along three categories of senior boys are entitled to exercise School discipline. Boys who belong to any of these categories, in addition to a limited act of other son office holders, are entitled to wear winged collars with bow ties .
- Pop: officially known as ‘Eton Society’, a society comprising the most popular, well-regarded confident and able senior boys. It is a driving ambition of many capable Eton schoolboys to be elected to Pop, and many high-performers who are refused entry to this society consider their careers at Eton a failure. Boris Johnson was a member of Pop, whilst David Cameron (unlike his elder brother Alexander) failed to be elected, which possibly fed their later political rivalry. Over the years its power and privileges have grown. Pop is the oldest self-electing society at Eton. The rules were altered in 1987 and again in 2005 so that the new intake are not elected solely by the existing year and a committee of masters. Members of Pop wear white and black houndstooth-checked trousers, a starched stick-up collar and white bow-tie, and are entitled to wear flamboyant waistcoats, often of their own design. Historically, only members of Pop were entitled to furl their umbrellas or sit on the wall on the Long Walk, in front of the main building. However, this tradition has died out. They perform roles at many of the routine events of the school year, including School Plays, parents’ evenings and other official events, and generally maintain order. Notable ex-members of Pop include Prince William, Duke of Cambridge (unlike his younger brother Prince Harry, who failed to be elected); Eddie Redmayne; Tom Hiddleston; and Boris Johnson.
- Sixth Form Select: an academically selected prefectorial group consisting, by custom, of the 10 senior King’s Scholars and the 10 senior Oppidan Scholars. Members of Sixth Form Select are entitled to wear silver buttons on their waistcoats. They also act as Praepostors: they enter classrooms in mid-lesson without knocking and ask in a loud and formal tone, “Is (family name) in this division?” followed by “He is to see the Head Master at (time) on the bill” (the Bill, see above). Members of Sixth Form Select also perform “Speeches”, a formal event held five times a year.
- House Captains: The captains of each of the 25 boys’ houses (see above) have disciplinary powers at school level. House Captains are entitled to wear a mottled-grey waistcoat.
It is possible to belong to Pop and Sixth Form Select at the same time. In the era of Queen Elizabeth I there were two praepostors in every form, who noted down the names of absentees. Until the recently nineteenth century, there was a praepostor for every division of the school. [ 94 ]
sport [edit ]
Sport is a have of Eton ; which has about 200 acres of playing fields and agreeableness kingdom. [ 105 ] The names of the play fields include Agar ‘s Plough, Dutchman ‘s, Upper Club, Lower Club, Sixpenny/The Field, and Mesopotamia ( situated between two streams and frequently shortened to “ Mespots ” ) .
The rowing lake at Dorney was developed and is owned by the college. It was the venue for the rowing and canoeing events at the 2012 Summer Olympics and the World Junior Rowing Championships. [ 106 ] The annual cricket match against Harrow at Lord ‘s Cricket Ground is the oldest repair of the cricket calendar, having been played there since 1805. A staple of the London society calendar since the 1800s, [ 107 ] in 1914, its importance was such that over 38,000 people attended the two days ‘ play, and in 1910 the match made national headlines [ 108 ] [ 109 ] but interest has since declined well, and the equal is now a one-day limited overs contest. In 1815, Eton College documented its football rules, the first football code to be written down anywhere in the world. [ 110 ] There is a track track at the Thames Valley Athletics Centre and an annual steeplechase. The running track was controversial as it was purchased with a £3m National Lottery allow with the school getting full moon day use of the facilities in central for £200k and 4.5 acres ( 1.8 hectares ) of land. The bursar claimed that Windsor, Slough and Eton Athletic cabaret was “ deprived ” because it did not have a first running track and facilities for train and the Sports Council agreed, saying the wholly community would benefit. however Steve Osborn, conductor of the Safe Neighbourhoods Unit, described the decision as “ staggering ” given significant reduction in youth services by councils across the nation. [ 111 ] The facility which became the Thames Valley Athletics Centre opened in April 1999. [ 112 ] Among the early sports played at Eton is Eton Fives .
Olympic rowing [edit ]
In 2006, [ 113 ] six years before the 2012 London Summer Olympics and London 2012 Summer Paralympic Games, Eton completed the construction of Dorney Lake, a permanent, eight-lane, 2,200 meter course ( about 1.4 miles ) in a 400-acre park. Eton financed the construction from its own funds. officially known throughout the Games as Eton Dorney, Dorney Lake provided prepare facilities for Olympic and Paralympic competitors, and during the Games, hosted the Olympic and Paralympic Rowing competitions adenine well as the Olympic Canoe Sprint consequence. [ 113 ] It attracted over 400,000 visitors during the Games period ( around 30,000 per day ), and was voted the best 2012 Olympic venue by spectators. [ 113 ] Thirty decoration events were held on Dorney Lake, during which Team GB won a sum of 12 medals, making the lake one of the most successful venues for Team GB. The FISA President, Denis Oswald, described it as “ the best-ever Olympic row venue ”. [ 113 ] In June 2013, it hosted the World Rowing Cup. Access to the park around the Lake is provided to members of the public, free of charge, about all the year round. [ 114 ]
Music and drama [edit ]
music [edit ]
The stream “ choirmaster ” ( Head of Music ) is Tim Johnson, and the School has eight organs and an stallion build for music ( operation spaces include the School Hall, the Farrer Theatre and two halls dedicated to music, the Parry Hall and the Concert Hall ). many instruments are teach, including apart ones such as the didgeridoo. The School participates in many national competitions ; many pupils are part of the National Youth Orchestra, and the School gives scholarships for dedicated and talented musicians. A former choirmaster of the college, Ralph Allwood set up and organize Eton Choral Courses, which run at the School every summer. In 2009, the School ‘s musical protégés came to wider notice when featured in a television receiver objective A Boy Called Alex. The film followed an etonian, Alex Stobbs, a musician with cystic fibrosis, as he worked toward conducting the difficult Magnificat by Johann Sebastian Bach. [ 115 ] [ 116 ]
play [edit ]
Farrer. The outside of Eton ‘s independent field, the numerous plays are put on every year at Eton College ; there is one chief dramaturgy, called the Farrer ( seating 400 ) and 2 Studio theatres, called the Caccia Studio and Empty Space ( seating 90 and 80 respectively ). There are about 8 or 9 house productions each class, around 3 or 4 “ independent ” plays ( not confined entirely to one house, produced, directed and funded by Etonians ) and three school plays, one specifically for boys in the first two years, and two assailable to all years. The School Plays have such good reputations that they are normally amply booked every nox. [ citation needed ] Productions besides take locate in varying locations around the School, varying from the sports fields to more historic buildings such as Upper School and College Chapel. In holocene years, the School has put on a musical version of The Bacchae ( October 2009 ) ampere well as productions of A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum ( May 2010 ), The Cherry Orchard ( February 2011 ), Joseph K ( October 2011 ), Cyrano de Bergerac ( May 2012 ), Macbeth ( October 2012 ), London Assurance ( May 2013 ), Jerusalem ( October 2013 ), A Midsummer Night’s Dream ( May 2014 ), Antigone ( October 2015 ), The Government Inspector ( May 2016 ) and Romeo and Juliet ( May 2017 ). On top of this, every three years, the School holds a fringe-style School Play Festival, where students and teachers write, direct and act in their own plays, hosted over the period of a workweek. The most recent one was held in October 2016, which hosted a broad variety of plays, from a double bill of two half an hour plays, to a serialize radio drama, written by a boy in F barricade ( the youngest year. ) frequently girls from surrounding schools, such as St George ‘s, Ascot, St Mary ‘s School Ascot, Windsor Girls ‘ School and Heathfield St Mary ‘s School, are cast in female roles. Boys from the School are besides responsible for the alight, heavy and stage management of all the productions, under the guidance of several professional full-time dramaturgy staff. [ 117 ] Every year, Eton employs a ‘Director-in-Residence ‘, an external professional director on a annual sign who normally directs one house bring and the Lower Boy playing period ( a school bring open entirely to the inaugural biennial groups ), vitamin a good as teaching Drama and Theatre Studies to most class groups. The drama department is headed by Scott Handy ( taking over from Hailz Osbourne in 2015 ) and respective other teachers ; Simon Dormandy was on the staff until late 2012. The School offers GCSE play ampere well as A-level “ English with Theatre Studies. ”
Celebrations [edit ]
Eton ‘s best-known holiday takes seat on the alleged “ Fourth of June ”, a celebration of the birthday of King George III, Eton ‘s greatest patron. [ 118 ] This day is celebrated with the Procession of Boats, in which the acme rowing crews from the top four years row past in vintage wooden row boats. similar to the Queen ‘s official Birthday, the “ Fourth of June ” is no long celebrated on 4 June, but on the Wednesday before the first weekend of June. Eton besides observes St. Andrew ‘s Day, on which the Eton wall game is played. [ citation needed ]
charitable condition and fees [edit ]
Until 18 December 2010, Eton College was an exempt charity under english law ( Charities Act 1993, Schedule 2 ). Under the provisions of the Charities Act 2006, it is now an excepted charity, and fully registered with the Charities Commission, [ 119 ] and is now one of the 100 largest charities in the UK. [ 120 ] As a charity, it benefits from solid tax breaks. It was calculated by the recently David Jewell, former Master of Haileybury, that in 1992 such tax breaks saved the educate about £1,945 per pupil per year, although he had no direct connection with the school. This subsidy has declined since the 2001 abolition by the labor Government of state-funded scholarships ( once known as “ assist places ” ) to freelancer schools. however, no child attended Eton on this dodge, meaning that the actual level of express aid to the educate has constantly been lower. Eton ‘s early Head Master, Tony Little, has claimed that the benefits that Eton provides to the local community free of charge ( consumption of its facilities, etc. ) have a higher respect than the tax breaks it receives as a leave of its charitable status. The fee for the academic year 2021–2022 was £44,094 ( approximately US $ 60,000 or € 52,000 as of November 2021 ), [ 121 ] although the union is well lower for those pupils on bursaries and scholarships .
accompaniment for country education [edit ]
London Academy of Excellence [edit ]
Eton co-sponsors a country sixth-form college, the London Academy of Excellence, opened in 2012 in the London Borough of Newham in East London, [ 122 ] the moment most deprive borough in England, [ 123 ] and just over a mile from the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, the main venue for London ‘s 2012 Summer Olympics. In 2015–2016, it had around 440 pupils and 32 teachers. [ 124 ] The college is release of bang and aims to get all its students into higher education. [ 125 ] The college ‘s close kinship with Eton has led it to be described as ‘the Eton of the East End ‘. [ 126 ] In 2015, the college reported that it had been named best one-sixth form in the area by The Sunday Times. [ 123 ]
Holyport College [edit ]
In September 2014, Eton opened, and became the lone educational presenter for, Holyport College, a newfangled purpose-built co-educational state board and day school that provides free education for around 500 pupils. It is located in Holyport, near Maidenhead in Berkshire. [ 127 ] structure costs were around £15 million, in which a fifth of places for day pupils have been set aside for children from poor homes, 21 boarding places for to youngsters on the verge of being taken into care, and a far 28 boarders funded or part-funded through bursaries. [ citation needed ]
State school pupils [edit ]
The above-described developments are running aboard long-established courses that Eton has provided for pupils from state of matter schools, most of them in the summer holidays ( July and August ) .
Universities Summer School [edit ]
Launched in 1982, the Universities Summer School is an intensifier residential course open to boys and girls throughout the UK who attend state schools, are at the end of their inaugural year in the Sixth Form, and are about to begin their final year of schooling. [ 129 ]
Brent-Eton Summer School [edit ]
Launched in 1994, the Brent-Eton Summer School offers 40–50 young people from the London Borough of Brent, an area of inner-city privation, an intensive one-week residential course, complimentary of consign, designed to help bridge the col between GCSE and A-level. [ 130 ]
Eton, Slough, Windsor and Heston Independent and State School Partnership [edit ]
In 2008, Eton helped found the Eton, Slough, Windsor and Heston Independent and State School Partnership ( ISSP ), with six local anesthetic department of state schools. The ISSP ‘s aims are ‘to raise pupil accomplishment, improve schoolchild self-esteem, raise schoolchild aspirations and improve professional exercise across the schools ‘. [ 131 ] Eton besides runs a number of choral and english terminology courses during the summer months .
diachronic relations with other schools [edit ]
Eton College has links with some private schools in India today, maintained from the days of the british Raj, such as The Doon School [ 132 ] and Mayo College. [ 132 ] Eton College is besides a member of the G20 Schools Group, a solicitation of college preparatory board schools from around the worldly concern, including Turkey ‘s Robert College, the United States ‘ Phillips Academy and Phillips Exeter Academy, Australia ‘s Melbourne Grammar School and Launceston Church Grammar School, Singapore ‘s Raffles Institution, and Switzerland ‘s International School of Geneva. Eton has fostered [ when? ] a relationship with the Roxbury Latin School, a traditional all-boys secret school in Boston, USA. Former Eton headmaster and provost Sir Eric Anderson shares a close friendship with Roxbury Latin Headmaster emeritus F. Washington Jarvis ; Anderson has visited Roxbury Latin on numerous occasions, [ 133 ] while Jarvis briefly taught theology at Eton after retiring from his headmaster mail at Roxbury Latin. The headmasters ‘ close friendship spawned the Hennessy Scholarship, [ 133 ] an annual pry established in 2005 and awarded to a graduate RL aged for a year of report at Eton. Hennessy Scholars generally reside in Wotton family. Eton College funded the Chapel of Trinity College Kandy, Ceylon. In 1927 with underground construction proving to be expensive, the stick out was strapped for funds. The administration led by Principal Rev John McLeod Campbell appealed far and wide for funds. The captivating building finished eight years late is the yield of the generosity of many colleges in the UK including Eton College. In taste of the contributions, the coating of arms of Eton College adorns the inner pillars of the Trinity College Chapel, Kandy [ 134 ]
The Doon School, India [edit ]
The Doon School, founded in 1935, is an all-boys ‘ populace school in India that was modelled along the lines of Eton and Winchester. [ 135 ] The School ‘s first headmaster was an Englishman, Arthur E. Foot, who had spent nine years as a skill master at Eton College before joining Doon. [ 136 ] In Doon ‘s early years, teachers from Eton travelled to India to fill the academic posts. Peter Lawrence was one of the first few masters to go to Doon. This led to alike slang being introduced in Doon which is still in use today, such as trials, dame, fagging, and schools ( as opposed to ‘periods ‘ ). In February 2013, Eton ‘s headmaster Tony Little visited Doon to hold talks with the then headmaster of Doon, Peter McLaughlin, on further collaboration between the two schools. [ 137 ] Both schools participate in an central plan in which boys from either school visit the other for one academic term. [ 138 ] Doon has frequently been described as ‘Eton of India ‘ by media outlets such as The New York Times, [ 139 ] BBC, [ 140 ] Channel 4, [ 141 ] The Guardian, [ 142 ] The Daily Telegraph, [ 143 ] and Forbes, [ 144 ] but the school eschews the label. [ 145 ] [ 146 ]
Old Etonians [edit ]
Old etonian Tie : black with Eton blue stripes Former pupils of Eton College are known as Old Etonians .
Politics [edit ]
Eton has produced twenty british premier ministers. Eleven of them are shown above .
royalty and nobility [edit ]
A number of aristocratic pupils come to Eton from aristocratic and royal families from six continents, some of whom have been sending their sons to Eton for generations. british :
Writers [edit ]
Scientists [edit ]
Journalists [edit ]
Actors [edit ]
Actor Dominic West has been unenthusiastic about the career benefits of being an Old Etonian, saying it “ is a mark that is slenderly above ‘paedophile ‘ in the media in a gallery of infamy ”, [ 163 ] but asked whether he would consider sending his own children there, said “ Yes, I would. It ‘s an extraordinary target. … It has the facilities and the excellence of teach and it will find what you ’ re good at and nurture it ”. [ 164 ]
music [edit ]
Others [edit ]
thirty-seven Old Etonians have been awarded the Victoria Cross —the largest number to alumni of any school ( see list of Victoria Crosses by school ) .
partially filmed at Eton [edit ]
here follows a list of films partially filmed at Eton. [ 165 ] [ better source needed ]
Controversies [edit ]
See besides [edit ]
Notes [edit ]
References [edit ]
- Nevill, Ralph (1911). Floreat Etona: Anecdotes and Memories of Eton College. London: Macmillan. OCLC 1347225.
- McConnell, J.D.R. (1967). Eton: How It Works. London: Faber and Faber. OCLC 251359076.
- Term Dates [accessed 19 August 2021]