Harvard University – Wikipedia

individual university in Cambridge, Massachusetts
“ Harvard ” redirects here. For other uses, see Harvard ( disambiguation )
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636 as Harvard College and named for its first benefactor, the Puritan clergyman John Harvard, it is the oldest institution of higher teach in the United States and among the most esteemed in the world. [ 6 ]

The Massachusetts colonial legislature authorized Harvard ‘s establish, “ dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches, when our deliver ministers shall lie in the dust ” ; though never formally affiliated with any denomination, in its early years Harvard College chiefly trained Congregational clergy. Its course of study and student body were gradually secularized during the eighteenth hundred, and by the nineteenth hundred, it had emerged as the central cultural administration among the Boston elect. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] Following the american Civil War, President Charles William Eliot ‘s long tenure ( 1869–1909 ) transformed the college and consort professional schools into a modern research university ; Harvard became a establish penis of the Association of American Universities in 1900. [ 9 ] James B. Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II, and liberalized admissions after the war. The university is composed of ten academic faculties plus the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. Arts and Sciences offers study in a wide range of academic disciplines for undergraduates and for graduates, while the other faculties offer entirely alumnus degrees, by and large professional. Harvard has three main campuses : [ 10 ] the 209-acre ( 85 hour angle ) Cambridge campus centered on Harvard Yard ; an adjoining campus immediately across the Charles River in the Allston vicinity of Boston ; and the medical campus in Boston ‘s Longwood Medical Area. [ 11 ] Harvard ‘s endowment is valued at $ 53.2 billion, making it the largest of any academician mental hospital. [ 3 ] Endowment income helps enable the undergraduate college to admit students regardless of fiscal need and provide generous fiscal help with no loans. [ 12 ] The Harvard Library is the populace ‘s largest academician library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ] Harvard alumni, faculty, and researchers have included numerous Nobel laureates, Fields Medalists, members of the U.S. Congress, MacArthur Fellows, Rhodes Scholars, Marshall Scholars, and Fulbright Scholars, all of which are arguably the most among all higher department of education institutions over the earth, depending upon the metrics a list adopt. [ 17 ] Its alumni include eight U.S. presidents and 188 living billionaires, the most of any university. Fourteen Turing Award laureates have been Harvard affiliates. Students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and 110 Olympic medals ( 46 gold ), and they have founded many noteworthy companies .

history

colonial

Christo et Ecclesiae (“For Christ and Church”) is one of Harvard’s several early mottoes.[18] The seal of the Harvard Corporation, found on Harvard diploma. ( “ For Christ and Church ” ) is one of Harvard ‘s several early mottoes. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America ‘s first known impression weigh. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] In 1639, it was named Harvard College after die clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge who had left the school £779 and his library of some 400 volumes. [ 21 ] The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 issue gave the school ‘s determination as “ to advance memorize and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our give ministers shall lie in the dust. ” [ 22 ] It trained many Puritan ministers in its early years [ 23 ] and offered a classic course of study based on the English university model‍—‌many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge ‍—‌but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. Harvard has never affiliated with any particular appellation, though many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Puritan churches. [ 24 ] Increase Mather served as president from 1681 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president of the united states who was not besides a clergyman, marking a turning of the college away from Puritanism and toward cerebral independence. [ 25 ]

nineteenth century

In the nineteenth century, Enlightenment ideas of reason and absolve will were far-flung among congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more hidebound, Calvinist parties. [ 26 ] : 1–4 When Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and President Joseph Willard died a year former, a clamber broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the Hollis chair in 1805, and the broad Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency two years later, signaling the shift key from the authority of traditional ideas at Harvard to the authority of liberal, arminian ideas. [ 26 ] : 4–5 [ 27 ] : 24 Charles William Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the prefer status of Christianity from the course of study while opening it to student autonomy. Though Eliot was the all-important figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize department of education but by Transcendentalist unitarian convictions influenced by William Ellery Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson. [ 28 ] Programs in the sketch of French and Spanish languages began in 1816 with George Ticknor as its first gear professor .

twentieth century

[29] Richard Rummell ‘s 1906 watercolor landscape view, facing northeast. In the twentieth hundred, Harvard ‘s repute grew as a burgeoning endowment and big professors expanded the university ‘s telescope. rapid registration growth continued as newly graduate schools were begun and the undergraduate college expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as the female counterpart of Harvard College, became one of the most outstanding schools for women in the United States. Harvard became a establish member of the Association of American Universities in 1900. [ 9 ] The scholar body in the early decades of the century was predominantly “ old-stock, high-status Protestants, particularly Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians. ” [ 30 ] In 1923—a year after the percentage of jewish students at Harvard had reached 20 % —President A. Lawrence Lowell supported a policy change that limited jewish students to 15 % of the undergraduate population. While Lowell ‘s idea was rejected, he did manage to ban black students from freshman dormitories. [ 31 ] [ 32 ] [ 33 ] President James B. Conant reinvigorated creative scholarship to guarantee Harvard ‘s eminence among research institutions. He saw higher education as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented preferably than an entitlement for the affluent, sol Conant devised programs to identify, recruit, and subscribe talented young. In 1943, he asked the faculty to make a definitive affirmation about what cosmopolitan department of education ought to be, at the secondary coil ampere well as at the college level. The resulting Report, published in 1945, was one of the most influential manifesto in twentieth century american english education. [ 34 ] between 1945 and 1960, admissions were opened up to bring in a more divers group of students. no longer drawing largely from blue-ribbon New England homework schools, the undergraduate college became accessible to striving middle class students from populace schools ; many more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but few blacks, Hispanics, or Asians. [ 35 ] Throughout the rest of the twentieth hundred, Harvard became more diverse. [ 36 ] Harvard ‘s graduate schools began admitting women in little numbers in the late nineteenth century. During World War II, students at Radcliffe College ( which since 1879 had been paying Harvard professors to repeat their lectures for women ) began attending Harvard classes aboard men. [ 37 ] Women were first admitted to the checkup school in 1945. [ 38 ] Since 1971, Harvard has controlled basically all aspects of undergraduate admission, direction, and house for Radcliffe women. In 1999, Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard. [ 39 ]

twenty-first century

Drew Gilpin Faust, previously the dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, became Harvard ‘s first female president on July 1, 2007. [ 40 ] She was succeeded by Lawrence Bacow on July 1, 2018. [ 41 ]

Campuses

cambridge university

Harvard ‘s 209-acre ( 85 hour angle ) chief campus is centered on Harvard Yard ( “ the Yard ” ) in Cambridge, about 3 miles ( 5 kilometer ) west-northwest of business district Boston, and extends into the surrounding Harvard Square region. The Yard contains administrative offices such as University Hall and Massachusetts Hall ; libraries such as Widener, Pusey, Houghton, and Lamont ; and Memorial Church. The Yard and adjacent areas include the main academic buildings of the staff of Arts and Sciences, including the college, such as Sever Hall and Harvard Hall. Freshman dormitories are in, or adjacent to, the Yard. Upperclassmen live in the twelve residential houses – nine south of the Yard near the Charles River, the others half a mile northwest of the Yard at the Radcliffe Quadrangle ( which once housed Radcliffe College students ). Each house is a community of undergraduates, faculty deans, and resident tutors, with its own boom hall, library, and amateur facilities. [ 42 ] besides in Cambridge are the Law, Divinity ( theology ), Engineering and Applied Science, Design ( architecture ), Education, Kennedy ( populace policy ), and Extension schools, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study in Radcliffe Yard. [ 43 ] Harvard besides has commercial actual estate holdings in Cambridge. [ 44 ] [ 45 ]

Allston

Harvard Business School, Harvard Innovation Labs, and many athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located on a 358-acre ( 145 hour angle ) campus in Allston, [ 46 ] a Boston neighborhood just across the Charles River from the Cambridge campus. The John W. Weeks Bridge, a pedestrian bridge over the Charles River, connects the two campuses. The university is actively expanding into Allston, where it immediately owns more land than in Cambridge. [ 47 ] Plans include newfangled construction and renovation for the Business School, a hotel and conference center, graduate scholar housing, Harvard Stadium, and other athletics facilities. [ 48 ] In 2021, the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences will expand into a newly, 500,000+ feather foot Science and Engineering Complex ( SEC ) in Allston. [ 49 ] The SEC will be adjacent to the Enterprise Research Campus, the Business School, and the Harvard Innovation Labs to encourage technology- and life science-focused startups equally well as collaborations with ripen companies. [ 50 ]

Longwood

The schools of Medicine, Dental Medicine, and Public Health are located on a 21-acre ( 8.5 hour angle ) campus in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area in Boston, about 3.3 miles ( 5.3 kilometer ) south of the Cambridge campus. [ 11 ] several Harvard-affiliated hospitals and research institutes are besides in Longwood, including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children ‘s Hospital, Brigham and Women ‘s Hospital, Dana–Farber Cancer Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, and the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering. Additional affiliates, most notably Massachusetts General Hospital, are located throughout the Greater Boston area .

other

Harvard owns the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection in Washington, D.C., the Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts, the Concord Field Station in Estabrook Woods in Concord, Massachusetts, [ 51 ] the Villa I Tatti research center in Florence, Italy, [ 52 ] the Harvard Shanghai Center in Shanghai, China, [ 53 ] and the Arnold Arboretum in the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston .

Organization and administration

University seal

government

Harvard is governed by a combination of its Board of Overseers and the President and Fellows of Harvard College ( besides known as the Harvard Corporation ), which in go appoints the President of Harvard University. [ 54 ] There are 16,000 staff and faculty, [ 55 ] including 2,400 professors, lecturers, and instructors. [ 56 ]

The Faculty of Arts and Sciences is the largest Harvard faculty and has elementary province for direction in Harvard College, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences ( SEAS ), and the Division of Continuing Education, which includes Harvard Summer School and Harvard Extension School. There are nine early graduate and professional faculties a well as the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. joint programs with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology include the Harvard–MIT Program in Health Sciences and Technology, the Broad Institute, The Observatory of Economic Complexity, and edX .

endowment

Harvard has the largest university endowment in the global, valued at about $ 41.9 billion as of 2020. [ 3 ] During the recession of 2007–2009, it suffered meaning losses that forced large budget cuts, in especial temporarily halting construction on the Allston Science Complex. [ 57 ] The endowment has since recovered. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] [ 60 ] [ 61 ] [ 62 ] About $ 2 billion of investment income is annually distributed to fund operations. [ 63 ] Harvard ‘s ability to fund its academic degree and fiscal aid programs depends on the performance of its endowment ; a poor performance in fiscal class 2016 forced a 4.4 % cut in the number of graduate students funded by the staff of Arts and Sciences. [ 64 ] Endowment income is critical, as only 22 % of gross is from students ‘ tuition, fees, room, and board. [ 65 ]

Divestment

Since the 1970s, respective student-led campaigns have advocated divesting Harvard ‘s endowment from controversial holdings, including investments in apartheid South Africa, Sudan during the Darfur genocide, and the tobacco, fossil fuel, and private prison industries. [ 66 ] [ 67 ] In the late 1980s, during the divestment from South Africa motion, scholar activists erected a emblematic “ shantytown ” on Harvard Yard and blockaded a speech by south african Vice Consul Duke Kent-Brown. [ 68 ] [ 69 ] The university finally reduced its confederacy african holdings by $ 230 million ( out of $ 400 million ) in response to the blackmail. [ 68 ] [ 70 ]

Academics

Teaching and learning

Harvard is a large, highly residential research university [ 72 ] offering 50 undergraduate majors, [ 73 ] 134 graduate degrees, [ 74 ] and 32 professional degrees. [ 75 ] For the 2018–2019 academic year, Harvard granted 1,665 baccalaureate degrees, 1,013 calibrate degrees, and 5,695 master degrees. [ 75 ]
The four-year, full-time undergraduate program has a broad arts and sciences focus. [ 72 ] [ 73 ] To graduate in the usual four years, undergraduates normally take four courses per semester. [ 76 ] In most majors, an honors degree requires advanced coursework and a aged dissertation. [ 77 ] Though some introductory courses have boastfully enrollments, the median class size is 12 students. [ 78 ]

research

Harvard is a initiation member of the Association of American Universities [ 79 ] and a leading research university with “ very high ” inquiry activity ( R1 ) and comprehensive examination doctoral programs across the arts, sciences, mastermind, and medicate according to the Carnegie Classification. [ 72 ] With the medical school systematically ranking first among medical schools for research, [ 80 ] biomedical inquiry is an area of finical military capability for the university. More than 11,000 faculty and over 1,600 calibrate students conduct research at the medical educate american samoa well as its 15 affiliate hospitals and research institute. [ 81 ] The checkup school and its affiliates attracted $ 1.65 billion in competitive research grants from the National Institutes of Health in 2019, more than doubly american samoa much as any other university. [ 82 ]

Libraries and museums

The Harvard Library system is centered in Widener Library in Harvard Yard and comprises closely 80 person libraries holding about 20.4 million items. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 16 ] According to the American Library Association, this makes it the largest academician library in the global. [ 14 ] [ 4 ] Houghton Library, the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, and the Harvard University Archives consist chiefly of rare and unique materials. America ‘s oldest collection of maps, gazetteers, and atlases both erstwhile and new is stored in Pusey Library and open to the public. The largest collection of East-Asian language material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard-Yenching Library . Large Four Piece Reclining Figure, near Lamont LibraryHenry Moore ‘s sculpture, near Lamont Library The Harvard Art Museums constitute three museums. The Arthur M. Sackler Museum covers asian, Mediterranean, and Islamic artwork, the Busch–Reisinger Museum ( once the Germanic Museum ) covers central and northern european art, and the Fogg Museum covers western artwork from the Middle Ages to the deliver emphasizing italian early Renaissance, british pre-raphaelite, and 19th-century french art. The Harvard Museum of Natural History includes the Harvard Mineralogical Museum, the Harvard University Herbaria featuring the Blaschka Glass Flowers show, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology. other museums include the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, designed by Le Corbusier and housing the film archive, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, specializing in the cultural history and civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, and the Harvard Museum of the Ancient Near East featuring artifacts from excavations in the Middle East .

repute and rankings

Among overall rankings, the Academic Ranking of World Universities ( ARWU ) has ranked Harvard as the world ‘s top university every year since it was released. [ 94 ] When QS and Times Higher Education collaborated to publish the Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings from 2004 to 2009, Harvard held the top touch every class and continued to hold first place on THE World Reputation Rankings ever since it was released in 2011. [ 95 ] In 2019, it was ranked first cosmopolitan by SCImago Institutions Rankings. [ 96 ] It was ranked in the first tier of american research universities, along with Columbia, MIT, and Stanford, in the 2019 composition from the Center for Measuring University Performance. [ 97 ] Harvard University is accredited by the New England Commission of Higher education. [ 98 ] Among rankings of specific indicators, Harvard topped both the University Ranking by Academic Performance ( 2019–2020 ) and Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities ( 2011 ), which measured universities ‘ numbers of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies. [ 99 ] According to annual polls done by The Princeton Review, Harvard is systematically among the top two most normally named “ dream colleges ” in the United States, both for students and parents. [ 100 ] [ 101 ] [ 102 ] Additionally, having made significant investments in its mastermind educate in recent years, Harvard was ranked one-third global for Engineering and Technology in 2019 by Times Higher Education. [ 103 ]

School rankings

scholar liveliness

Student demographics (Fall 2019)[112]
Undergrad Grad/prof
Asian 21% 13%
Black 9% 5%
Hispanic or Latino 11% 7%
White 37% 38%
Two or more races 8% 3%
International 12% 32%

student life and activities are generally organized within each school .

scholar government

The Undergraduate Council represents College students. The Graduate Council represents students at all twelve graduate and master schools, most of which besides have their own student politics. [ 113 ]

Athletics

Both the undergraduate College and the graduate schools have intramural sports programs. Harvard College fields 42 intercollegiate sports teams in the NCAA Division I Ivy League, more than any early college in the area. [ 114 ] Every two years, the Harvard and Yale lead and battlefield teams come together to compete against a compound Oxford and Cambridge team in the oldest continuous external amateur competition in the populace. [ 115 ] As with early Ivy League universities, Harvard does not offer acrobatic scholarships. [ 116 ] The school semblance is crimson. Harvard ‘s acrobatic competition with Yale is intense in every sport in which they meet, coming to a climax each fall in the annual football meet, which dates back to 1875. [ 117 ]

celebrated people

Alumni

Over more than three and a half centuries, Harvard alumni have contributed creatively and importantly to club, the arts and sciences, business, and national and international affairs. Harvard ‘s alumni include eight U.S. presidents, 188 survive billionaires, 79 Nobel laureates, 7 Fields Medal winners, 9 Turing Award laureates, 369 Rhodes Scholars, 252 Marshall Scholars, and 13 Mitchell Scholars. [ 118 ] [ 119 ] [ 120 ] [ 121 ] Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and 108 Olympic medals ( including 46 gold medals ), and they have founded many luminary companies worldwide. [ 122 ] [ 123 ]

  1. ^ Nominal Harvard College class year : did not graduate

staff

literature and democratic culture

The perception of Harvard as a center of either elect accomplishment, or elitist privilege, has made it a frequent literary and cinematic backdrop. “ In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a sealed come of stuffiness, ” film critic Paul Sherman has said. [ 136 ]

literature

film

Harvard ‘s policy since 1970 ( after the damage caused by Love Story ) has been to permit filming on its place merely rarely, so most scenes set at Harvard ( specially indoor shots, but excepting forward pass footage and shots of populace areas such as Harvard Square ) are in fact shoot elsewhere. [ 142 ] [ 143 ]

See besides

References

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