Cairns – Wikipedia

This article is about the city in Australia. For the stack, see Cairn. For other uses, see Cairns ( disambiguation )
City in Queensland, Australia
Cairns (, ) [ note 1 ] is a city in Queensland, Australia, [ 4 ] on the tropical north east coast of Far North Queensland.

The city was founded in 1875 and named after Sir William Wellington Cairns, the Governor of Queensland from 1875 to 1877. [ 5 ] It was formed to serve miners heading for the Hodgkinson River goldfield, but declined when an easier route was discovered from Port Douglas. It by and by developed into a railhead and major interface for exporting carbohydrate cane, gold, minerals and agricultural products from surrounding coastal areas and the Atherton Tableland. The population in June 2019 was 153,952, having grown on average 1.02 % per annum over the preceding five years. [ 1 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] The city is the 5th-most-populous in Queensland, and 14th in Australia. [ citation needed ] Cairns is a popular tourist finish because of its tropical climate and access to tropical rain forest and the Great Barrier Reef, one of the seven lifelike wonders of the world .

history [edit ]

Prior to British colonization, the Cairns area was inhabited by the Gimuy Walubara Yidinji people, [ 8 ] [ 9 ] who still claim their native title rights. [ 10 ] Yidinji ( besides known as Yidinj, Yidiny, and Idindji ) is an australian Aboriginal terminology. Its traditional terminology area is within the local government areas of Cairns Region and Tablelands Region, in such localities as Cairns, Gordonvale, and the Mulgrave River, and the southern part of the Atherton Tableland including Atherton and Kairi. The area in which the city is located is known in the local anesthetic Yidiny terminology as Gimuy, [ 8 ] and the kin who inhabited the area before colonization are the Gimuy-walubarra kin. [ 9 ]
1874 map showing native wells situated within the future site of Cairns From 1770 to the early 1870s the area was known to the british just as Trinity Bay. The arrival of beche de mer fishermen from the belated 1860s saw the first european presence in the area. On the web site of the contemporary Cairns foreshore, there was a big native well which was used by these fishermen. A fierce confrontation occurred in 1872 between local anesthetic Yidinji people and Phillip Garland, a beche de mer fisherman, over the use of this well. The area from this date was subsequently called Battle Camp. [ 11 ] In 1876, hastened by the need to export gold mined from the Hodgkinson goldfields on the tablelands to the west, closer investigation by several official expeditions established its electric potential for development into a port. Brinsley G. Sheridan surveyed the area and selected a place further up Trinity Inlet known to the diggers as Smith’s Landing for a settlement which he renamed Thornton. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] however, after native Police officers Alexander Douglas-Douglas and Robert Arthur Johnstone opened a new track from the goldfields to Battle Camp, this more coastal locate became preferable. [ 14 ] Battle Camp was renamed Cairns in deep 1876 in respect of the then Governor of Queensland, William Cairns. The locate was predominantly mangrove swamps and sand ridges. Labourers gradually cleared the swamps, and the sand ridges were filled with dry mud, sawdust from local sawmills, and ballast from a prey at Edge Hill. The Cairns Parish of the Roman Catholic Vicariate Apostolic of Cooktown ( now the Roman Catholic Diocese of Cairns ) was established in 1884. [ 15 ]
farm in Cairns in 1897 Cairns War Memorial, circa 1936 Debris from the construction of a railway to Herberton on the Atherton Tableland, a project which started in 1886, was besides used. The railway opened up land late used for agribusiness on the lowlands ( sugar cane, corn, rice, banana, pineapples ), and for yield and dairy production on the Tableland. The success of local agribusiness helped establish Cairns as a port, and the creation of a harbor board in 1906 supported its robust economic future. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] The Wharf Estate Cairns went on sale in Brisbane via auction on 19 February 1889 by John Macnamara & Co. Land Auctioneers. The bring was part of the position known as the Railway Reserve. The sale was described by the Auctioneers as the ‘largest ever yet held in Northern Queensland ‘. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ] On 25 April 1926 ( ANZAC Day ), the Cairns Sailors and Soldiers War Memorial was unveiled by Alexander Frederick Draper, the mayor of the City of Cairns. [ 21 ] [ 22 ] During World War II, the Allied Forces used Cairns as a stage base for operations in the Pacific, [ 23 ] with United States Army Air Forces and Royal Australian Air Force operational bases ( nowadays the airport ), ampere well as a major military seaplane infrastructure in Trinity Inlet, and United States Navy and Royal Australian Navy bases near the current wharf. Combat missions were flown out of Cairns in subscribe of the Battle of the Coral Sea in 1942. Edmonton and White Rock south of Cairns were major military supply areas and U.S. Paratroopers trained at Gordonvale and the Goldsborough Valley. A special Forces training base was established at the old “ Fairview “ homestead on Munro ‘s Hill, Mooroobool. This base was officially known as the Z Experimental Station, [ 24 ] but referred to colloquially as “ The House on the Hill ”. After World War II, Cairns gradually developed into a concentrate for tourism. The opening of the Cairns International Airport in 1984 helped establish the city as a desirable finish for international tourism. In the 2016 census the urban area of Cairns had a population of 144,730 people. [ 25 ] The population in June 2019 was 153,951. [ 1 ]

Demographics [edit ]

According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 144,787 people in Cairns ( Significant Urban Area ) .

  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 8.9% of the population.
  • 67.9% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 4.0%, New Zealand 3.1%, Papua New Guinea 1.5%, Philippines 1.2% and Japan 1.1%.
  • 76.9% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Japanese 1.6%, Mandarin 0.8%, Italian 0.7%, Korean 0.7% and German 0.6%.
  • The most common responses for religion were No Religion 32.1%, Catholic 22.4%, Anglican 13.2%, Not stated 12.2%, Uniting Church: 3.6%.[26]

geography [edit ]

The Skyrail Rainforest Cableway goes over the rain forest and is one of the city ‘s independent tourist attractions . The Mulgrave River running through the Goldsbrough Valley to the south of Gordonvale . Fruit bats hanging from a mango tree, central Cairns Cairns is located on the east coast of Cape York Peninsula on a coastal leach between the Coral Sea and the Great Dividing Range. The northerly separate of the city is located on Trinity Bay and the city center is located on Trinity Inlet. To the south of the Trinity Inlet lies the Aboriginal community of Yarrabah. Some of the city ‘s suburbs are located on flood plains. The Mulgrave River and Barron River hang within the greater Cairns area but not through the Cairns CBD. The city ‘s concentrate foreshore is located on a mud flat .

urban layout [edit ]

City center of Cairns Cairns is a peasant city, with a linear urban layout that runs from the confederacy at Edmonton to the north at Ellis Beach. The city is approximately fifty-two kilometer ( 32 mile ) from north to south ; it has experienced a recent urban conurbation, with suburbs occupying estate once used for carbohydrate cane grow. The Northern Beaches consist of a number of beach communities extending north along the coast. In general, each beach suburb is at the end of a spur road extending from the Captain Cook Highway. From south to north, these are Machans Beach, Holloways Beach, Yorkeys Knob, Trinity Park, Trinity Beach, Kewarra Beach, Clifton Beach, Palm Cove, and Ellis Beach. The suburb of Smithfield is inland against the mountains of the Great Dividing Range, between Yorkeys Knob and Trinity Park. It serves as the independent hub for the Northern Beaches, with a modern patronize arcade, called Smithfield Shopping Centre. South of Smithfield and inland from the Northern Beaches along the border of the Barron River flood apparent are the suburbs of Caravonica, Kamerunga, Freshwater, and Stratford. This area is sometimes referred to as Freshwater Valley, though it is actually the lower part of Redlynch Valley ; further up the valley are the suburbs of Redlynch, on the western side of Redlynch Valley, and Brinsmead on the eastern slope. Stratford, Freshwater, and Brinsmead are separated from Cairns city by Mount Whitfield ( elevation 365 thousand ( 1,198 foot ) ) and Whitfield Range. Crystal Cascades and Copperlode Falls Dam are besides behind this stove. ( Kuranda, a town on the Barron River on the western side of the Macalister Range, forms separate of the Cairns economic catchment but is in the Tablelands local government area and is not part of the Cairns urban area. ) The city center of Cairns is adjacent to the suburb of Cairns North, and Parramatta Park, Bungalow, Portsmith, and near to Westcourt, Manunda, Manoora, Edge Hill, Whitfield, Kanimbla, City View, Mooroobool, Earlville, Woree and Bayview Heights. The small suburb of Aeroglen is pressed between Mount Whitfield and the airport, on the Captain Cook Highway between Cairns North and Stratford. Southside Cairns, situated in a narrow area between Trinity Inlet to the east and Lamb Range to the west, includes the suburb of White Rock, Mount Sheridan, Bentley Park and Edmonton. The townships of Goldsborough, Little Mulgrave, and Aloomba are approach Gordonvale, on the Mulgrave River. This sphere is serviced by the Bruce Highway. several early small towns and communities within Cairns ‘ legal power are sparsely located along the Bruce Highway, the furthest being Bramston Beach, 81 kilometer ( 50 myocardial infarction ) south of the Cairns CBD ; the largest of these townships is Babinda, about 60 km ( 37 myocardial infarction ) from the city .

climate [edit ]

tropical beach in Cairns Cairns experiences a tropical climate, specifically a tropical monsoon climate ( Am ) under the Köppen climate classification. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] A wet season with heavy monsoonal downpours runs from November to May, with a relatively dry season from June to October, though alight showers occur during this period. [ 29 ] Cairns ‘ mean annual rain is merely under 2,000 millimetres ( 79 in ), although monthly totals in the wet season from December to April can exceed 1,000 mm ( 39 in ), with the highest monthly rain being recorded in January 1981, where over 1,417.4 mm ( 55.80 in ) of rain fell. [ 30 ] In contrast, ampere little as 721 millimetres or 28.39 inches fell in the record dry calendar year of 2002. Babinda, a town to the south of the city, is Australia ‘s wettest town, recording an annual rain of over 4,200 mm ( 170 in ). Cairns has hot, humid summers and very ardent winters. [ 29 ] Mean maximum temperatures vary from 26.2 °C ( 79.2 °F ) in July to 31.7 °C ( 89.1 °F ) in January. Monsoonal activity during the wet season occasionally causes major implosion therapy of the Barron and Mulgrave Rivers, cutting off road and rail entree to the city. Cairns has 89.7 open days, annually. Dewpoint in the wet season ( summer ) averages at 23 °C ( 73 °F ). The average temperature of the sea ranges from 23.8 °C ( 74.8 °F ) in July to 29.4 °C ( 84.9 °F ) in January. [ 31 ]

Climate data for Cairns Aero AWS, (1991-2020 averages, extremes 1941-present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 40.4
Average high °C (°F) 31.7
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.9
Average low °C (°F) 24.0
Record low °C (°F) 18.2
Average rainfall mm (inches) 384.9
Average rainy days 19.5 18.7 18.3 18.1 13.9 11.3 9.2 8.0 6.5 9.2 11.7 14.6 159
Average afternoon relative humidity (%) 67 71 66 65 63 61 57 56 55 57 60 64 62
Mean monthly sunshine hours 210.8 173.6 201.5 204.0 210.8 216.0 229.4 251.1 261.0 272.8 255.0 232.5 2,718.5
Source: Bureau of Meteorology[30]

tropical cyclones [edit ]

Like most of North and Far North Queensland, Cairns is prone to tropical cyclones, normally forming between November and May. noteworthy cyclones that have affected the Cairns region include :

Facilities [edit ]

The City Library, operated by the Cairns Regional Council, opened in 1979 [ 32 ] and is situated at 151 Abbott Street. [ 33 ] A major renovation was undertaken in 1999 and a foster minor renovation was implemented in 2011. [ 32 ] Public accessible wireless local area network is available. [ 33 ] Current Library services and collections can be accessed from the Cairns Libraries web site. [ 34 ]

inheritance listings [edit ]

Cairns has a numeral of heritage-listed sites, including :

government [edit ]

The Lagoon on the Cairns Esplanade on the left, separated by the boardwalk from the ocean on the right, at low tide on the Cairns Esplanade on the forget, separated by the boardwalk from the ocean on the right, at low tide Cairns is part of the Cairns Region local government area which is governed by a Regional Council. The Council consists of a directly elected mayor and 10 councillors, elected from 10 single-member divisions ( or wards ) using an optional discriminatory vote system. Elections are held every four years. The Cairns Region consists of three former local anesthetic government areas. The first was the master City of Cairns, consisting of the Cairns City region as listed above. The second, which was amalgamated in 1995, was the Shire of Mulgrave ( comprising the other areas, namely the Northern Beaches, Redlynch Valley and Southside ). The town of Gordonvale was once called Nelson. The third area is the Shire of Douglas, which amalgamated in 2008 during major statewide local government reforms. At the time of the 1995 amalgamation, Cairns City had a population of approximately 40,000 and Mulgrave Shire had a population of approximately 60,000. Both local anesthetic politics authorities had chambers in the Cairns CBD. The erstwhile Cairns City Council chambers has been converted into a newfangled city library. In a controversial decision, [ 65 ] raw Council chambers were constructed on previously contaminated land in the chiefly industrial suburb of Portsmith. Cairns has three representatives in the Queensland Parliament, from the electoral districts of Barron River, Cairns and Mulgrave. The city is represented in the Federal Parliament by representatives elected from the districts of Leichhardt and Kennedy .

economy [edit ]

Cairns at night ; the wharves. The casino ‘s dome can be seen in the background . Cairns Pier Cairns serves as the major commercial kernel for the Far North Queensland and Cape York Peninsula Regions. It is a base for the regional offices of respective government departments .

tourism [edit ]

Tourism plays a major character in the Cairns economy. According to Tourism Australia, the Cairns region is the fourth-most-popular finish for international tourists in Australia after Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. [ 68 ] While the city does not rank amongst Australia ‘s lead 10 destinations for domestic tourism, it attracts a significant phone number of australian vacation makers despite its distance from major capitals. [ 69 ] There is besides a growing interest in Cairns from the chinese leisure marketplace with regular scheduled send flights from chinese cities such as Shanghai and Guangzhou. During the 2013 Chinese Lunar New Year period alone, Cairns saw 20,000 chinese holidaymakers flying in on chartered flights. [ 70 ] The city is near the Great Barrier Reef, the Wet Tropics of Queensland, and the Atherton Tableland. Great Barrier Reef tours that manoeuver from Cairns are very democratic and hence Cairns is besides considered as the gateway to Great Barrier Reef. The Cairns esplanade includes a swim lagoon with adjoining barbecue areas. In May 2003, the then Cairns Mayor Kevin Byrne declared that topless sun is permitted here. [ 71 ] [ 72 ] many leisure activities are conducted in this area, including flea marketplace, sports classes and many more .

commercial [edit ]

several patronize centres of respective sizes are located throughout Cairns. The largest of these are Cairns Central denounce kernel, located in the cardinal business district ( CBD ), and Stockland Cairns, located in the suburb of Earlville. In Westcourt, one of the city ‘s oldest shop centres has been refurbished, with the city ‘s first DFO. [ 73 ] [ 74 ] To service the needs of suburb further from the city center, shopping complexes are besides located at Mount Sheridan, Redlynch, Smithfield, and Clifton Beach. In 2010, the state politics opened the second stage of William McCormack Place, an A $ 80 million office construct credited as the first 6-star green star-rated build in the city. [ 75 ]

Media [edit ]

The Cairns Post is a casual newspaper published in the city ; a hebdomadally paper, The Cairns Sun, is besides published. The Courier-Mail is a casual Queensland-wide newspaper published in Brisbane. The Australian newspaper besides circulates wide. The Cairns Bulletin is an independent newspaper in circulation in the Cairns area. Cairns is served by five television stations, three commercial television stations ( WIN Television, Seven Queensland and Southern Cross 10 ) which are regional affiliates of the three australian commercial television receiver networks ( 10, Seven and Nine ), and public broadcasters the ABC and SBS [ 76 ] services. All three main commercial networks produce local news program coverage – Seven Queensland and WIN Television both breeze 30-minute local news program bulletins at 6pm each weeknight, produced from newsrooms in the city but broadcast from studios in Maroochydore and Wollongong respectively. Southern Cross 10 airs a regional Queensland news updates of 10 News First. Cairns radio stations include a number of populace, commercial and community broadcasters. The ABC broadcasts ABC Far North, ABC Radio National, ABC NewsRadio, ABC Classic FM and the Triple J young network. commercial radio stations include Star 102.7, 4CA 846 AM, Hot FM, Sea FM and 104.3 4TAB sports radio, while the community radio stations are 4CCR-FM, 101.9 Coast FM, Orbit FM 88.0FM & 87.8FM and 4CIM 98.7FM .

industry and agribusiness [edit ]

The land around Cairns is silent used for sugar cane farming, although this estate is increasingly under pressure from new suburbs as the city grows. The Mulgrave Sugar Mill is located in Gordonvale ( ). [ 77 ] [ 78 ] The Barron Gorge Hydroelectric Power Station is located nearby on the lower Barron River, and provides fleeceable baron .

ecstasy [edit ]

Cairns is an important ecstasy hub in the Far North Queensland area. Located at the basis of Cape York Peninsula, it provides important ecstasy links between the Peninsula and Gulf of Carpentaria regions, and the areas to the south of the state. Cairns International Airport is substantive to the viability of the area ‘s tourism diligence .

Roads [edit ]

The Bruce Highway runs for 1,700 km ( 1,056 myocardial infarction ) from Bald Hills on the City of Brisbane ‘s northern boundary, and terminates in Woree, a southern suburb in Cairns. The Captain Cook Highway ( besides referred as the Cook Highway ) commences at Aeroglen, a northerly suburb of Cairns, and runs for approximately 76 km ( 47 nautical mile ) northwest to Mossman. [ 79 ] A indigence for future upgrades to the Bruce Highway to motorway standards through the southern suburbs to Gordonvale has been identified in regional planning strategies to cope with increasing congestion from rapid population growth. This will result in overpasses at all major intersections from Woree to Gordonvale. The expressway will divert from Bentley Park to Gordonvale, bypassing Edmonton to reduce the effects of road noise on residential areas. [ 80 ] The Kennedy Highway commences at Smithfield on the Barron River flood knit north of Cairns, and ascends the Macalister Range to the township of Kuranda. The highway then extends to the town of Mareeba on the Atherton Tableland, and continues to communities of Cape York Peninsula.

The Gillies Highway commences at the township of Gordonvale, and ascends the Gillies Range ( separate of the Great Dividing Range ) to the town of Atherton on the Atherton Tableland, passing through the township of Yungaburra on the way. The controversial private road, Quaid Road, was constructed in 1989 through what is immediately a Wet Tropics World Heritage Area, and links Wangetti, on the seashore merely north of Cairns, to Southedge, just south of Mount Molloy. The road is not loose to the public and is not used for general traffic .

bus [edit ]

A populace bus passage net exists within the city, with two transit hubs located within the CBD : the Cairns Central Railway Station precinct, and the Cairns City Bus Station located within the Lake street and Shield street area, through which all bus lines operate and provide linkage to taxi, ride share and intercity rail services. [ 81 ] The passage network includes most parts of the city, from Palm Cove in the north, Gordonvale in the south and Redlynch to the west. It is managed throughout the city by Translink : through a service contract with the Sunbus Cairns caller, however the Go Card ticketing system has not been implemented in the region. A smaller shuttlecock busbar service, Jon’s Kuranda Bus runs between Cairns and Kuranda alongside early private coach services. The chief bus hub in the Cairns CBD are the Cairns City bus station, opened in 2014, [ 82 ] and at Cairns Central ), the erstwhile service about all busbar lines in Cairns. [ 83 ] Cairns is served by long-distance coaches to Brisbane, and regional cities to the south. Coaches besides operate west to Mount Isa via Townsville, and to Alice Springs and Darwin in the Northern Territory .

Taxis and exile network companies [edit ]

Cairns besides has a major cab company, Cairns Taxis, which services the Cairns region. Uber was introduced to the region in March 2017, [ 84 ] servicing the greater region. [ 85 ] Ola launched in February 2020. [ 86 ]

train [edit ]

[87] Railway workers on the Cairns Railway with a view of Glacier Rock in the background, ca. 1891. Cairns railway station is the destination for Queensland ‘s North Coast railway line, which follows the easterly seaside from Brisbane. Services are operated by Queensland Rail ( QR ) and include the high-speed Diesel Tilt Train. Freight trains besides operate along the path, with a QR Freight handling facility located at Portsmith. Pacific National Queensland ( a division of Pacific National, owned by Asciano Limited ) operates a train side at Woree. It runs private trains on the rail network owned by the Queensland State Government and managed by QR ‘s Network Division. The Kuranda Scenic Railway operates from Cairns. The tourist railway ascends the Macalister Range and is not used for commuter services. It passes through the suburbs of Stratford, Freshwater ( stopping at Freshwater Station ) and Redlynch before reaching Kuranda. Freight services to Forsayth were discontinued in the mid-1990s. These were interracial cargo and passenger services that served the semi-remote towns west of the Great Dividing Range. There is nowadays a hebdomadally passenger-only service, The Savannahlander, that leaves Cairns on Wednesday mornings. The Savannahlander is run by a private company, Cairns Kuranda Steam Trains. Cairns is served by a narrow gauge cane railroad track ( or cane discipline ) network that haul harvested sugar cane to the Mulgrave Sugar Mill located in Gordonvale. The imperativeness of urban sprawl on land previously cultivated by cane farmers has seen this network reduced over holocene years. [ 88 ]

airport [edit ]

Cairns International Airport is 7 kilometer ( 4 nautical mile ) union of Cairns City between the CBD and the Northern Beaches. The domestic terminal at Cairns Airport underwent an extensive renovation which began in 2007 and was completed in 2010. The airport has a domestic terminal, an external terminal, and a general air travel area. The airport handles international flights, and flights to major australian cities, tourist destinations, and regional destinations throughout North Queensland. It is an significant base for general air travel serving the Cape York Peninsula and Gulf of Carpentaria communities. The Cairns airport is besides a base for the Royal Flying Doctor Service .

port [edit ]

Cairns Marina The Cairns Seaport, located on Trinity Inlet, is operated by the Cairns Port Authority. [ 89 ] It serves as an crucial port for tourist operators providing daily reef trips. These consist of large catamarans capable of carrying over 300 passengers, a well as smaller operators that may take vitamin a few as 12 tourists. Cairns Port is besides a interface of bid for cruise ships, such as Captain Cook Cruises, cruising the South Pacific Ocean. It besides provides freight services to coastal townships on Cape York Peninsula, the Torres Strait and the Gulf of Carpentaria. annually cargo through the port totals 1.13 million tonnes. about 90 % of the trade is bulge cargoes [ 90 ] – including petroleum, sugar, molasses, fertilizer and LP gas. A large number of fishing trawlers are besides located at the port. There is besides a marina that houses secret yachts and boats used for tourist operations. The Trinity Wharf has recently been the subject of a major renovation to improve the area for tourist and cruise ship operations. [ citation needed ] The freight wharves are located to the south of Trinity Wharf further up Trinity Inlet .

defense facilities [edit ]

The Royal Australian Navy has a floor in Cairns ( HMAS Cairns ). [ 91 ] The foundation has a complement of 900 personnel, and supports nine vessels, including :

  • Three Armidale-class patrol boats of Ardent Division.
  • Two Cape-class patrol boats.

Four ships of the Royal Australian Navy Hydrographic Service .
previously four of the six Balikpapan -class land craft where based before their decommission [ 91 ] Porton Barracks, in the outlying suburb of Edmonton, is base to the australian Army ‘s 51st Battalion, Far North Queensland Regiment. Delta Company from the Townsville based 31st/42nd Battalion, Royal Queensland Regiment is besides based here. Both units are components of the australian Army Reserve .

sister cities [edit ]

A choice of memorabilia and artefacts relating to Cairns Sister Cities is displayed at Cairns City Library. [ 92 ]

education [edit ]

Cairns has numerous basal and secondary schools. separate systems of private and public schools operate in Queensland. There are 20 state basal schools and 16 state of matter senior high school schools operated by the Queensland state government Department of Education within the Cairns City Council area, including 6 schools in the predominantly rural areas south of Gordonvale. Roman Catholic schools are operated by catholic Education Cairns. The Roman Catholic system encompasses nineteen basal schools, six secondary colleges and one P-12 college. [ 93 ] There are about 6,700 primary students and 4,000 secondary students enrolled in the Roman Catholic school system. [ 94 ] There are besides four other autonomous schools – Peace Lutheran College, Trinity Anglican School, Freshwater Christian College and Redlynch State College. There is besides Hinterland Cairns Steiner School, which is independent. The Cairns Campus of James Cook University is located at Smithfield. CQUniversity Australia has established a cogitation center in Cairns. [ 95 ] The city besides hosts a TAFE college, and a School of the Air base, both located in the inner suburb of Manunda .

Health [edit ]

The Cairns Hospital from the publicize facing south. The Cairns Hospital is situated on the Cairns Esplanade and is the major hospital for the Cape York Peninsula area. The smaller Cairns Private Hospital is located nearby. A new build due to be completed in 2015 will provide up to 168 more beds. [ 96 ] Cairns is a base for the Royal Flying Doctor Service, which operates clinics and provides hand brake evacuations in outside communities throughout the region .

sport and diversion [edit ]

Cairns is home to Far North Queensland Heat, who play in the 2nd tier of association football in Australia. They compete in the NPL Queensland which is one tier under the A-League. The team has represented the city nationally previously at the 2014 FFA Cup. The team competes at Barlow Park. The Cairns region has a large association football community with a local competition which spans from Port Douglas to Innisfail and west to Dimbulah. luminary association football players from the region include Socceroos Frank Farina, Steve Corica, Shane Stefanutto and Michael Thwaite .

australian rules [edit ]

Cairns has a seven-team australian rules football rival between teams from the Cairns and Port Douglas region. AFL Cairns presently hosts one AFL game each season. There is besides an AFL Masters team that is based in Cairns, they are known as the Cairns Stingers .
Cazaly ‘s stadium

baseball [edit ]

There is a baseball league at Trinity Beach. [ 97 ]

basketball [edit ]

Cairns has a National Basketball League ( NBL ) team, the Cairns Taipans whose home motor hotel is the Cairns Convention Centre, known as The Snakepit during Taipans home games .

Rugby union [edit ]

Cairns besides hosts growing bases for Rugby union .

Rugby league [edit ]

The Northern Pride Queensland Cup rugby league team played their first season in 2008, and act as a self-feeder team to the North Queensland Cowboys who play in the National Rugby League. Cairns is represented by Brothers Cairns, Ivanhoes Knights, Cairns Kangaroos, Edmonton Storm and Southern Suburbs Cockatoos in the Cairns District Rugby League .

Sporting facilities [edit ]

Cairns Museum noteworthy sporting grounds include Barlow Park, Parramatta Park, Cazaly ‘s Stadium, the Cairns Convention Centre, and the Cairns Hockey Centre. The Cairns Showground is used for sports equally good, as the Cairns Show and funfairs. [ 98 ]

Outdoor sports [edit ]

Cairns is a major international address for water sports and aqualung diving due to its cheeseparing proximity to the Great Barrier Reef. other amateur activities democratic with tourists include white water raft, skydiving, hang glide, kitesurfing and snorkelling .

Amenities [edit ]

Established in 1978, the Cairns & District Chinese Association is an arts and inheritance organization seeking to preserve the chinese culture and inheritance of Cairns and North Queensland and enriching the contemporaneous cultural, social and economic diversity of the residential district. The society organises events such as the Chinese New Year Festival, organises Lion dancers and dragon boat race, maintains the Lit Sung Goong Temple, and offers chinese speech classes and sociable group activities. [ 99 ] Established in 1989, the Cairns and District Family History Society maintains a library of worldwide genealogy material at 271 Gatton Street, Westcourt. The company publishes newly genealogic resources based on collecting and indexing class information relating to Far North Queensland. [ 100 ] The Cairns Historical Society operates the Cairns Museum and Cairns Historical Society Resource Centre at the early Cairns School of Arts build on the corner of Lake and Shields Streets in Cairns City. [ 101 ] The Cairns branch of the Queensland Country Women ‘s Association meets at 264 Grafton Street, Cairns North. [ 102 ] St Monica ‘s Catholic Cathedral is at 183 Abbott Street. It is within the Cairns Cathedral Parish of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Cairns. [ 15 ]

autochthonal languages and representation [edit ]

The Yidiny lyric is a outstanding lyric of the Cairns area. [ 103 ] Irukandji language ( besides known as Yirrgay, Yurrgay, Yirrgandji, Djabuganjdji and Yirgay ) is a language of Far North Queensland, peculiarly the sphere around the Kuranda Range and Lower Barron River. The Irukandji language area includes the landscape within Cairns Regional Council. [ 103 ] Yumplatok ( besides known as Torres Strait Creole and Broken ) is a contemporary Torres Strait Island lyric originating in the Torres Strait. The liaison with missionaries and others since the 1800s has led to the development of a pidgin language, which transitioned into a creole language and now has its own distinctive sound system, grammar, vocabulary, custom and entail. Torres Strait Creole is spoken by most Torres Strait Islanders and is a concoction of Standard Australian English and traditional languages. It is an English-based creole ; however, each island has its own adaptation of creole. Torres Strait Creole is besides spoken on the australian mainland, including Northern Peninsula Area Region and coastal communities such as Cairns, Townsville, Mackay, Rockhampton and Brisbane. [ 103 ] There are four Traditional Owner groups representing the rights and interests of the peoples of the Cairns region. The Dawul Wuru ( Yirrganydji ) Aboriginal Corporation represents traditional Owners in the area between Cairns and Port Douglas. Native style rights have been granted to the Djabugay people over land and waters within the Barron Gorge National Park near Kuranda. The Gunggandji people hold rights over more than 7,500 hour angle ( 19,000 acres ) on the Yarrabah Peninsula. The fourth group represents the Yidinji clans, and comprises Gimuy Walubara Yidinji, Dulabed Malanbarra and Yidinji, Mandingalbay Yidinji and Wadjanbarra Tableland Yidinji. [ 104 ]

luminary people [edit ]

gallery [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

  1. ^[2][3] however, most Australians consider it erroneous and rather pronounce it [ ˈkæːnz ] when referring to the city. In non-Australian dialects, the city is normally pronounced as, however, most Australians consider it erroneous and quite pronounce itwhen referring to the city .

References [edit ]

reference :
Category : Fashion


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The term green building can be used to describe...