Voice over Internet Protocol ( VoIP ), besides called IP telephony, is a method and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol ( IP ) networks, such as the Internet. The terms Internet telephony, broadband telephony, and broadband phone service specifically refer to the provision of communications services ( voice, fax, SMS, voice-messaging ) over the Internet, preferably than via the populace switched telephone net ( PSTN ), besides known as plain old telephone service ( POTS ) .
overview [edit ]
The steps and principles involved in originating VoIP telephone calls are like to traditional digital telephone and involve sign, channel apparatus, digitization of the analogue voice signals, and encoding. rather of being transmitted over a circuit-switched network, the digital information is packetized and transmission occurs as IP packets over a packet-switched network. They transport media streams using particular media delivery protocols that encode audio and video with audio codecs and video recording codecs. assorted codecs exist that optimize the media current based on application requirements and network bandwidth ; some implementations rely on narrowband and compressed speech, while others support high-fidelity stereo codecs.
Reading: Voice over IP – Wikipedia
The most widely used speech coding standards in VoIP are based on the linear predictive tease ( LPC ) and modified discrete cosine transform ( MDCT ) compression methods. democratic codecs include the MDCT-based AAC-LD ( used in FaceTime ), the LPC/MDCT-based Opus ( used in WhatsApp ), the LPC-based SILK ( used in Skype ), μ-law and A-law versions of G.711, G.722, and an open source part codec known as iLBC, a codec that uses only 8 kbit/s each way called G.729. early providers of voice-over-IP services used business models and offered technical solutions that mirrored the architecture of the bequest telephone network. Second-generation providers, such as Skype, built close networks for private user bases, offering the benefit of rid calls and public toilet while potentially charging for access to early communication networks, such as the PSTN. This limited the freedom of users to mix-and-match third-party hardware and software. Third-generation providers, such as Google Talk, adopted the concept of federate VoIP. [ 1 ] These solutions typically allow dynamic interconnection between users in any two domains of the Internet, when a drug user wishes to place a call. In addition to VoIP phones, VoIP is besides available on many personal computers and other Internet access devices. Calls and SMS text messages may be sent via Wi-Fi or the carrier wave ‘s mobile data net. [ 2 ] VoIP provides a framework for consolidation of all modern communications technologies using a single unified communications system .
pronunciation [edit ]
VoIP is variously pronounced as an initialism, V-O-I-P, or as an acronym, ( VOYP ). [ 3 ] Full words, voice over Internet Protocol, or voice over IP, are sometimes used .
Protocols [edit ]
voice over IP has been implemented with proprietary protocols and protocols based on afford standards in applications such as VoIP phones, mobile applications, and web-based communications. A variety show of functions are needed to implement VoIP communication. Some protocols perform multiple functions, while others perform only a few and must be used in concert. These functions include :
- Network and transport – Creating reliable transmission over unreliable protocols, which may involve acknowledging receipt of data and retransmitting data that wasn’t received.
- Session management – Creating and managing a session (sometimes glossed as simply a “call”), which is a connection between two or more peers that provides a context for further communication.
- Signaling – Performing registration (advertising one’s presence and contact information) and discovery (locating someone and obtaining their contact information), dialing (including reporting call progress), negotiating capabilities, and call control (such as hold, mute, transfer/forwarding, dialing DTMF keys during a call [e.g. to interact with an automated attendant or IVR], etc.).
- Media description – Determining what type of media to send (audio, video, etc.), how to encode/decode it, and how to send/receive it (IP addresses, ports, etc.).
- Media – Transferring the actual media in the call, such as audio, video, text messages, files, etc.
- Quality of service – Providing out-of-band content or feedback about the media such as synchronization, statistics, etc.
- Security – Implementing access control, verifying the identity of other participants (computers or people), and encrypting data to protect the privacy and integrity of the media contents and/or the control messages.
VoIP protocols include :
borrowing [edit ]
consumer market [edit ]
example of residential network including VoIP Mass-market VoIP services use existing broadband Internet access, by which subscribers place and receive telephone calls in much the lapp manner as they would via the PSTN. Full-service VoIP telephone companies provide inbound and outbound serve with send inbound dialing. many offer unlimited domestic calling and sometimes international calls for a flat monthly subscription tip. Phone calls between subscribers of the same provider are normally free when flat-fee overhaul is not available. [ citation needed ] A VoIP call is necessity to connect to a VoIP avail supplier. This can be implemented in several ways :
- Dedicated VoIP phones connect directly to the IP network using technologies such as wired Ethernet or Wi-Fi. These are typically designed in the style of traditional digital business telephones.
- An analog telephone adapter connects to the network and implements the electronics and firmware to operate a conventional analog telephone attached through a modular phone jack. Some residential Internet gateways and cablemodems have this function built in.
- Softphone application software installed on a networked computer that is equipped with a microphone and speaker, or headset. The application typically presents a dial pad and display field to the user to operate the application by mouse clicks or keyboard input.[ quotation needed]
PSTN and mobile network providers [edit ]
It is increasingly common for telecommunications providers to use VoIP telephone over dedicate and public IP networks as a backhaul to connect switching centers and to interconnect with other telephone network providers ; this is often referred to as IP backhaul. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] Smartphones may have SIP clients built into the firmware or available as an application download. [ 8 ] [ 9 ]
corporate use [edit ]
Because of the bandwidth efficiency and low costs that VoIP technology can provide, businesses are migrating from traditional copper-wire call systems to VoIP systems to reduce their monthly telephone costs. In 2008, 80 % of all new Private ramify switch over ( PBX ) lines installed internationally were VoIP. [ 10 ] For model, in the United States, the Social Security Administration is converting its field offices of 63,000 workers from traditional call installations to a VoIP infrastructure carried over its existing datum net. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] VoIP allows both voice and data communications to be run over a one network, which can importantly reduce infrastructure costs. The prices of extensions on VoIP are lower than for PBX and cardinal systems. VoIP switches may run on commodity hardware, such as personal computers. Rather than closed architectures, these devices rely on standard interfaces. [ 13 ] VoIP devices have simpleton, intuitive user interfaces, so users can often make bare system configuration changes. Dual-mode phones enable users to continue their conversations as they move between an outside cellular service and an internal Wi-Fi network, so that it is no farseeing necessary to carry both a background earphone and a cell phone. Maintenance becomes simple as there are fewer devices to oversee. [ 13 ] VoIP solutions aimed at businesses have evolved into incorporate communications services that treat all communications—phone calls, faxes, voice mail, electronic mail, web conferences, and more—as discrete units that can all be delivered via any means and to any handset, including cellphones. Two kinds of service providers are operating in this space : one set is focused on VoIP for medium to large enterprises, while another is targeting the small-to-medium commercial enterprise ( SMB ) grocery store. [ 14 ] Skype, which in the first place marketed itself as a service among friends, has begun to cater to businesses, providing free-of-charge connections between any users on the Skype network and connect to and from ordinary PSTN telephones for a mission. [ 15 ]
Delivery mechanism [edit ]
In cosmopolitan, the provision of VoIP telephone systems to organizational or individual users can be divided into two basal pitch methods : private or on-premises solutions, or outwardly host solutions delivered by third-party providers. On-premises delivery methods are more akin to the classical PBX deployment mannequin for connecting an office to local PSTN networks. While many use cases placid remain for private or on-premises VoIP systems, the wide-eyed market has been gradually shifting toward Cloud or Hosted VoIP solutions. Hosted systems are besides generally better suited to smaller or personal use VoIP deployments, where a private system may not be feasible for these scenarios .
Hosted VoIP systems [edit ]
Hosted or Cloud VoIP solutions involve a overhaul supplier or telecommunications carrier hosting the call system as a software solution within their own infrastructure. typically this will be one or more datacentres, with geographic relevance to the end-user ( second ) of the system. This infrastructure is external to the drug user of the system and is deployed and maintained by the service supplier. Endpoints, such as VoIP telephones or softphone applications ( apps running on a calculator or mobile device ), will connect to the VoIP service remotely. These connections typically take seat over populace internet links, such as local fixed WAN break or mobile carrier service .
secret VoIP systems [edit ]
In the encase of a private VoIP system, the elementary telephone system itself is located within the private infrastructure of the end-user organization. normally, the system will be deployed on-premises at a web site within the send control of the arrangement. This can provide numerous benefits in terms of QoS control ( see below ), monetary value scalability, and ensuring privacy and security system of communications traffic. however, the duty for ensuring that the VoIP system remains performant and resilient is predominantly vested in the end-user arrangement. This is not the case with a Hosted VoIP solution. secret VoIP systems can be physical hardware PBX appliances, converged with other infrastructure, or they can be deployed as software applications. generally, the latter two options will be in the shape of a distinguish virtualized appliance. however, in some scenarios, these systems are deployed on unsheathed metal infrastructure or IoT devices. With some solutions, such as 3CX, companies can attempt to blend the benefits of hosted and private on-premises systems by implementing their own secret solution but within an external environment. Examples can include datacentre collocation services, public cloud, or individual swarm locations. For on-premises systems, local endpoints within the same placement typically associate directly over the LAN. For outside and external endpoints, available connectivity options mirror those of Hosted or Cloud VoIP solutions. however, VoIP traffic to and from the on-premises systems can often besides be sent over secure private links. Examples include personal VPN, site-to-site VPN, secret networks such as MPLS and SD-WAN, or via secret SBCs ( Session Border Controllers ). While exceptions and private peer options do exist, it is broadly uncommon for those private connectivity methods to be provided by Hosted or Cloud VoIP providers .
quality of service [edit ]
communication on the IP net is perceived as less dependable in contrast to the circuit-switched public call network because it does not provide a network-based mechanism to ensure that data packets are not lost, and are delivered in consecutive order. It is a best-effort network without fundamental quality of service ( QoS ) guarantees. Voice, and all other data, travels in packets over IP networks with fixed maximum capacity. This system may be more prone to data loss in the presence of congestion [ a ] than traditional circuit switched systems ; a tour switch system of insufficient capacity will refuse raw connections while carrying the remainder without stultification, while the quality of real-time data such as telephone conversations on packet-switched networks degrades dramatically. [ 17 ] Therefore, VoIP implementations may face problems with rotational latency, packet personnel casualty, and jitter. [ 17 ] [ 18 ] By default, network routers handle traffic on a first-come, first-served footing. Fixed delays can not be controlled as they are caused by the physical outdistance the packets travel. They are particularly baffling when satellite circuits are involved because of the long distance to a geostationary satellite and back ; delays of 400–600 ms are typical. latency can be minimized by marking voice packets as being delay-sensitive with QoS methods such as DiffServ. [ 17 ] Network routers on high volume traffic links may introduce latency that exceeds permissible thresholds for VoIP. Excessive load on a liaison can cause congestion and associated line up delays and packet loss. This signals a enchant protocol like TCP to reduce its transmission pace to alleviate the congestion. But VoIP normally uses UDP not TCP because recovering from congestion through retransmission normally entails besides much rotational latency. [ 17 ] therefore QoS mechanisms can avoid the undesirable loss of VoIP packets by immediately transmitting them ahead of any line up majority traffic on the like connection, even when the link is congested by bulk traffic. VoIP endpoints normally have to wait for the completion of infection of previous packets before new data may be sent. Although it is potential to preempt ( abort ) a less important packet in mid-transmission, this is not normally done, particularly on high-speed links where transmission times are short even for maximum-sized packets. [ 19 ] An alternative to preemption on slower links, such as dialup and digital subscriber line ( DSL ), is to reduce the utmost transmission time by reducing the maximum infection unit of measurement. But since every packet must contain protocol headers, this increases relative header disk overhead on every yoke traversed. [ 19 ] The liquidator must resequence IP packets that arrive out of order and recover graciously when packets arrive besides belated or not at all. Packet delay variation results from changes in queuing check along a given network path due to competition from early users for the lapp infection links. VoIP receivers accommodate this version by storing incoming packets briefly in a playout buffer, intentionally increasing rotational latency to improve the chance that each packet will be on pass when it is time for the voice engine to play it. The lend stay is thus a compromise between excessive rotational latency and excessive dropout, i.e. fleeting audio interruptions. Although jitter is a random variable, it is the kernel of several other random variables that are at least slightly independent : the individual line up delays of the routers along the Internet way in interrogate. Motivated by the cardinal terminus ad quem theorem, jitter can be modeled as a gaussian random variable. This suggests continually estimating the beggarly delay and its standard deviation and setting the playout stay so that only packets delayed more than several standard deviations above the think of will arrive excessively recently to be useful. In practice, the division in rotational latency of many Internet paths is dominated by a small numeral ( much one ) of relatively slow and congested bottleneck links. Most Internet spine links are now so fast ( e.g. 10 Gbit/s ) that their delays are dominated by the transmission metier ( e.g. ocular fiber ) and the routers driving them do not have adequate buffer for queuing delays to be significant. [ citation needed ] A number of protocols have been defined to support the report of quality of serve ( QoS ) and quality of experience ( QoE ) for VoIP calls. These include RTP Control Protocol ( RTCP ) extended reports, [ 20 ] SIP RTCP drumhead reports, H.460.9 Annex B ( for H.323 ), H.248 .30 and MGCP extensions. The RTCP extended report VoIP metrics stop specified by RFC 3611 is generated by an IP call or gateway during a live call and contains data on mailboat loss rate, packet discard rate ( because of jitter ), packet loss/discard burst metrics ( burst length/density, gap length/density ), net delay, end system check, signal/noise/echo level, base opinion scores ( MOS ) and R factors and shape data related to the jitter buffer. VoIP metrics reports are exchanged between IP endpoints on an occasional basis during a call, and an end of call message sent via SIP RTCP drumhead report card or one of the other signaling protocol extensions. VoIP metrics reports are intended to support real-time feedback related to QoS problems, the substitute of information between the endpoints for improved call quality calculation and a variety of other applications .
DSL and ATM [edit ]
DSL modems typically leave Ethernet connections to local equipment, but inside they may actually be asynchronous Transfer Mode ( ATM ) modems. [ b ] They use cash machine Adaptation Layer 5 ( AAL5 ) to section each Ethernet package into a series of 53-byte ATM cells for transmittance, reassembling them back into Ethernet frames at the receiving end. Using a offprint virtual tour identifier ( VCI ) for audio over IP has the potential to reduce reaction time on shared connections. ATM ‘s likely for latency reduction is greatest on slow links because worst-case latency decreases with increasing connect speed. A life-size ( 1500 byte ) Ethernet frame takes 94 molarity to transmit at 128 kbit/s but entirely 8 ms at 1.5 Mbit/s. If this is the bottleneck associate, this rotational latency is credibly small enough to ensure good VoIP performance without MTU reductions or multiple ATM VCs. The latest generations of DSL, VDSL and VDSL2, carry Ethernet without intermediate ATM/AAL5 layers, and they by and large support IEEE 802.1p priority tagging thus that VoIP can be queued ahead of less time-critical traffic. [ 17 ] ATM has hearty heading overhead : 5/53 = 9.4 %, roughly doubly the sum heading operating expense of a 1500 byte Ethernet human body. This “ asynchronous transfer mode tax ” is incurred by every DSL exploiter whether or not they take advantage of multiple virtual circuits – and few can. [ 17 ]
Layer 2 [edit ]
respective protocols are used in the data link layer and physical layer for quality-of-service mechanisms that help VoIP applications work well even in the bearing of network congestion. Some examples include :
- IEEE 802.11e is an approved amendment to the IEEE 802.11 standard that defines a set of quality-of-service enhancements for wireless LAN applications through modifications to the Media Access Control (MAC) layer. The standard is considered of critical importance for delay-sensitive applications, such as voice over wireless IP.
- IEEE 802.1p defines 8 different classes of service (including one dedicated to voice) for traffic on layer-2 wired Ethernet.
- The ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides a way to create a high-speed (up to 1 gigabit per second) Local area network (LAN) using existing home wiring (power lines, phone lines and coaxial cables). G.hn provides QoS by means of Contention-Free Transmission Opportunities (CFTXOPs) which are allocated to flows (such as a VoIP call) that require QoS and which have negotiated a contract with the network controllers.
performance metrics [edit ]
The timbre of voice transmission is characterized by several metrics that may be monitored by network elements and by the exploiter agent hardware or software. such metrics include network mailboat loss, mailboat jitter, package rotational latency ( delay ), post-dial delay, and echo. The metrics are determined by VoIP performance screen and monitor. [ 21 ] [ 22 ] [ 23 ] [ 24 ] [ 25 ] [ 26 ]
PSTN integration [edit ]
A VoIP media gateway control ( aka Class 5 Softswitch ) works in cooperation with a media gateway ( aka IP Business Gateway ) and connects the digital media stream, so as to complete the path for voice and data. Gateways include interfaces for connecting to standard PSTN networks. Ethernet interfaces are besides included in the modern systems which are specially designed to link calls that are passed via VoIP. [ 27 ] E.164 is a ball-shaped enumeration standard for both the PSTN and public estate mobile network ( PLMN ). Most VoIP implementations documentation E.164 to allow calls to be routed to and from VoIP subscribers and the PSTN/PLMN. [ 28 ] VoIP implementations can besides allow other identification techniques to be used. For exemplar, Skype allows subscribers to choose Skype names ( usernames ) [ 29 ] whereas SIP implementations can use Uniform Resource Identifier ( URIs ) alike to email addresses. [ 30 ] Often VoIP implementations employ methods of translating non-E.164 identifiers to E.164 numbers and vice versa, such as the Skype-In service provided by Skype [ 31 ] and the E.164 issue to URI map ( ENUM ) service in IMS and SIP. [ 32 ] Echo can besides be an offspring for PSTN consolidation. [ 33 ] Common causes of echo include electric resistance mismatches in analogue circuitry and an acoustic path from the receive to transmit signal at the receiving end .
Number portability [edit ]
local anesthetic phone number portability ( LNP ) and mobile number portability ( MNP ) besides impact VoIP business. Number portability is a service that allows a subscriber to select a new telephone carrier without requiring a new number to be issued. typically, it is the responsibility of the former carrier to “ map ” the previous number to the undisclosed number assigned by the raw carrier. This is achieved by maintaining a database of numbers. A dial number is initially received by the master carrier wave and quickly rerouted to the new carrier wave. Multiple porting references must be maintained even if the subscriber returns to the master carrier wave. The FCC mandates mailman conformity with these consumer-protection stipulations. In November 2007, the Federal Communications Commission in the United States released an order extending number portability obligations to interconnected VoIP providers and carriers that support VoIP providers. [ 34 ] A voice call originating in the VoIP environment besides faces least-cost spread-eagle ( LCR ) challenges to reach its destination if the number is routed to a mobile telephone act on a traditional mobile carrier. LCR is based on checking the finish of each telephone call as it is made, and then sending the call via the net that will cost the customer the least. This rat is topic to some consider given the complexity of call route created by act portability. With MNP in place, LCR providers can no longer trust on using the network root prefix to determine how to route a margin call. rather, they must now determine the actual network of every act before routing the call. [ citation needed ] consequently, VoIP solutions besides need to handle MNP when routing a voice call. In countries without a cardinal database, like the UK, it may be necessary to query the mobile network about which home net a mobile call act belongs to. As the popularity of VoIP increases in the enterprise markets because of LCR options, VoIP needs to provide a certain grade of dependability when handling calls .
hand brake calls [edit ]
A call connected to a nation line has a direct relationship between a telephone number and a physical location, which is maintained by the telephone ship’s company and available to hand brake responders via the national emergency reaction service centers in form of emergency subscriber lists. When an emergency call is received by a center the location is automatically determined from its databases and displayed on the hustler comfort. In IP telephone, no such lineal liaison between localization and communications end distributor point exists. even a provider having wired infrastructure, such as a DSL provider, may know lone the approximate placement of the device, based on the IP address allocated to the network router and the sleep together service address. Some ISPs do not track the automatic assignment of IP addresses to customer equipment. [ 35 ] IP communication provides for device mobility. For exemplar, a residential broadband connection may be used as a liaison to a virtual secret network of a corporate entity, in which case the IP address being used for customer communications may belong to the enterprise, not the residential ISP. such off-premises extensions may appear as part of an upriver IP PBX. On fluid devices, for example, a 3G handset or USB radio broadband arranger, the IP address has no relationship with any physical localization known to the telephone avail provider, since a mobile exploiter could be anywhere in a region with network coverage, evening roaming via another cellular company.
At the VoIP level, a call or gateway may identify itself by its account credentials with a Session Initiation Protocol ( SIP ) registrar. In such cases, the Internet telephone serve provider ( ITSP ) knows only that a detail exploiter ‘s equipment is active. Service providers often provide emergency answer services by agreement with the user who registers a forcible location and agrees that, if an emergency number is called from the IP device, hand brake services are provided to that address only. such emergency services are provided by VoIP vendors in the United States by a system called Enhanced 911 ( E911 ), based on the Wireless Communications and Public Safety Act. The VoIP E911 emergency-calling arrangement associates a physical savoir-faire with the calling party ‘s telephone number. All VoIP providers that provide access to the public switched telephone network are required to implement E911, a service for which the subscriber may be charged. “ VoIP providers may not allow customers to opt-out of 911 service. ” [ 35 ] The VoIP E911 system is based on a static table search. Unlike in cellular phones, where the location of an E911 call can be traced using help GPS or other methods, the VoIP E911 information is accurate only if subscribers keep their emergency address information current. [ citation needed ]
Fax support [edit ]
Sending faxes over VoIP networks is sometimes referred to as Fax over IP ( FoIP ). transmission of facsimile documents was baffling in early VoIP implementations, as most spokesperson digitization and compression codecs are optimized for the representation of the human voice and the proper timing of the modem signals can not be guaranteed in a packet-based, connectionless network. A standards-based solution for faithfully delivering fax-over-IP is the T.38 protocol. The T.38 protocol is designed to compensate for the differences between traditional packet-less communications over analogue lines and packet-based transmissions which are the basis for IP communications. The fax machine may be a standard device connected to an analogue call arranger ( ATA ), or it may be a software application or dedicated network device operating via an Ethernet interface. [ 36 ] Originally, T.38 was designed to use UDP or TCP transmission methods across an IP network. Some newer high-end fax machines have built-in T.38 capabilities which are connected directly to a network throw or router. In T.38 each packet contains a dowry of the data stream send in the former packet. Two consecutive packets have to be lost to actually lose data integrity .
ability requirements [edit ]
Telephones for traditional residential analogue service are normally connected directly to call company earphone lines which provide direct stream to world power most basic analogue handsets independently of locally available electrical might. The susceptibility of earphone service to power failures is a common trouble even with traditional analogue service where customers purchase call units that operate with wireless handsets to a basal station, or that have other advanced phone features, such as built-in voice mail or phone ledger features. IP Phones and VoIP telephone adapters connect to routers or cable modems which typically depend on the handiness of mains electricity or locally generate world power. [ 37 ] Some VoIP serve providers use customer premises equipment ( for example, cable modems ) with battery-backed power supplies to assure uninterrupted service for up to respective hours in case of local might failures. such battery-backed devices typically are designed for use with analogue handsets. Some VoIP service providers implement services to route calls to other telephone services of the subscriber, such a cellular phone, in the event that the customer ‘s network device is inaccessible to terminate the call .
security [edit ]
secure calls are possible using exchangeable protocols such as Secure Real-time Transport Protocol. Most of the facilities of creating a dependable telephone association over traditional call lines, such as digitize and digital transmission, are already in place with VoIP. It is necessary lone to encrypt and authenticate the existing data stream. Automated software, such as a virtual PBX, may eliminate the necessitate for personnel to greet and switch entrance calls. The security concerns for VoIP telephone systems are similar to those of other Internet-connected devices. This means that hackers with cognition of VoIP vulnerabilities can perform denial-of-service attacks, harvest customer data, record conversations, and compromise voice mail messages. Compromised VoIP exploiter account or seance credentials may enable an attacker to incur substantial charges from third-party services, such as long-distance or international calling. The technical details of many VoIP protocols create challenges in routing VoIP traffic through firewalls and network address translators, used to interconnect to transit networks or the Internet. Private seance border controllers are often employed to enable VoIP calls to and from protected networks. other methods to traverse NAT devices involve assistive protocols such as STUN and Interactive Connectivity Establishment ( ICE ). Standards for securing VoIP are available in the Secure Real-time Transport Protocol ( SRTP ) and the ZRTP protocol for analogue telephone adapters, vitamin a well as for some softphones. IPsec is available to secure point-to-point VoIP at the tape drive level by using opportunist encoding. Though many consumer VoIP solutions do not support encoding of the signaling path or the media, securing a VoIP phone is conceptually easier to implement using VoIP than on traditional call circuits. A solution of the miss of widespread support field-grade officer encoding is that it is relatively easy to eavesdrop on VoIP calls when access to the data network is possible. [ 38 ] Free open-source solutions, such as Wireshark, help capture VoIP conversations. Government and military organizations use diverse security measures to protect VoIP traffic, such as voice over secure IP ( VoSIP ), fasten voice over IP ( SVoIP ), and dependable voice over secure IP ( SVoSIP ). [ 39 ] The distinction lies in whether encoding is applied in the call end point or in the network. [ 40 ] Secure voice over secure IP may be implemented by encrypting the media with protocols such as SRTP and ZRTP. Secure part over IP uses Type 1 encoding on a classify network, such as SIPRNet. [ 41 ] [ 42 ] [ 43 ] [ 44 ] Public Secure VoIP is besides available with free GNU software and in many democratic commercial VoIP programs via libraries, such as ZRTP. [ 45 ]
Caller ID [edit ]
spokesperson over IP protocols and equipment provide caller ID support that is compatible the PSTN. Many VoIP serve providers besides allow callers to configure custom caller ID information. [ 46 ]
Hearing help compatibility [edit ]
Wireline telephones which are manufactured in, imported to, or intended to be used in the US with Voice over IP service, on or after February 28, 2020, are required to meet the hearing aid compatibility requirements set forth by the Federal Communications Commission. [ 47 ]
operational cost [edit ]
VoIP has drastically reduced the monetary value of communication by sharing network infrastructure between data and voice. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] A single broadband connection has the ability to transmit multiple telephone calls .
regulative and legal issues [edit ]
As the popularity of VoIP grows, governments are becoming more concerned in regulating VoIP in a manner similar to PSTN services. [ 50 ] Throughout the development global, particularly in countries where regulation is faint or captured by the dominant hustler, restrictions on the consumption of VoIP are much imposed, including in Panama where VoIP is taxed, Guyana where VoIP is prohibited. [ 51 ] In Ethiopia, where the government is nationalizing telecommunication service, it is a criminal offense to offer services using VoIP. The state has installed firewalls to prevent external calls from being made using VoIP. These measures were taken after the popularity of VoIP reduced the income generated by the state-owned telecommunication company. [ citation needed ]
Canada [edit ]
In Canada, the canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission regulates call military service, including VoIP telephone serve. VoIP services operating in Canada are required to provide 9-1-1 emergency avail. [ 52 ]
European Union [edit ]
In the European Union, the discussion of VoIP service providers is a decision for each national telecommunication governor, which must use contest law to define relevant national markets and then determine whether any serve provider on those national markets has “ significant marketplace world power ” ( and so should be subject to sealed obligations ). A general distinction is normally made between VoIP services that function over managed networks ( via broadband connections ) and VoIP services that function over unmanaged networks ( basically, the Internet ). [ citation needed ] The relevant EU Directive is not intelligibly drafted concerning obligations that can exist independently of market power ( e.g., the obligation to offer access to emergency calls ), and it is impossible to say definitively whether VoIP service providers of either type are bound by them. A review of the EU Directive is afoot and should be complete by 2007. [ citation needed ]
arabian states of the GCC [edit ]
oman [edit ]
In Oman, it is illegal to provide or use unauthorized VoIP services, to the extent that web sites of unaccredited VoIP providers have been blocked. Violations may be punished with fines of 50,000 Omani Rial ( about 130,317 US dollars ), a biennial prison sentence or both. In 2009, police raided 121 Internet cafe throughout the nation and arrested 212 people for using or providing VoIP services. [ 53 ]
Saudi Arabia [edit ]
In September 2017, Saudi Arabia lifted the ban on VoIPs, in an undertake to reduce operational costs and spur digital entrepreneurship. [ 54 ] [ 55 ]
United Arab Emirates [edit ]
In the United Arab Emirates ( UAE ), it is illegal to provide or use unauthorized VoIP services, to the extent that web sites of unaccredited VoIP providers have been blocked. however, some VoIPs such as Skype were allowed. [ 56 ] In January 2018, internet service providers in UAE blocked all VoIP apps, including Skype, but permitting alone 2 “ government-approved ” VoIP apps ( C ’ ME and BOTIM ) for a fixed rate of Dh52.50 a calendar month for use on mobile devices, and Dh105 a calendar month to use over a computer connected. ” [ 57 ] [ 58 ] In opposition, a request on Change.org garnered over 5000 signatures, in answer to which the web site was blocked in UAE. [ 59 ] On March 24, 2020, the United Arab Emirates loosened restriction on VoIP services early prohibited in the country, to ease communication during the COVID-19 pandemic. however, popular clamant messaging applications like WhatsApp, Skype, and FaceTime remained blocked from being used for voice and video calls, constricting residents to use paid services from the area ‘s state-owned telecommunication providers. [ 60 ]
India [edit ]
In India, it is legal to use VoIP, but it is illegal to have VoIP gateways inside India. [ 61 ] This efficaciously means that people who have PCs can use them to make a VoIP call to any act, but if the outside side is a convention earphone, the gateway that converts the VoIP shout to a POTS predict is not permitted by law to be inside India. Foreign-based VoIP server services are illegal to use in India. [ 61 ] In the interest of the Access Service Providers and International Long Distance Operators, the Internet telephone was permitted to the ISP with restrictions. Internet Telephony is considered to be a different avail in its scope, nature, and kind from real-time voice as offered by other Access Service Providers and Long Distance Carriers. Hence the play along type of Internet Telephony are permitted in India : [ 62 ]
- (a) PC to PC; within or outside India
(b) PC / a device / Adapter conforming to the standard of any international agencies like- ITU or IETF etc. in India to PSTN/PLMN abroad.
(c) Any device / Adapter conforming to standards of International agencies like ITU, IETF etc. connected to ISP node with static IP address to similar device / Adapter; within or outside India.
(d) Except whatever is described in condition ( two ) above[ clearing needed], no other form of Internet Telephony is permitted.
(e) In India no Separate Numbering Scheme is provided to the Internet Telephony. Presently the 10 digit Numbering allocation based on E.164 is permitted to the Fixed Telephony, GSM, CDMA wireless service. For Internet Telephony, the numbering scheme shall only conform to IP addressing Scheme of Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Translation of E.164 number / private number to IP address allotted to any device and vice versa, by ISP to show compliance with IANA numbering scheme is not permitted.
(f) The Internet Service Licensee is not permitted to have PSTN/PLMN connectivity. Voice communication to and from a telephone connected to PSTN/PLMN and following E.164 numbering is prohibited in India.
South Korea [edit ]
In South Korea, only providers registered with the government are authorized to offer VoIP services. Unlike many VoIP providers, most of whom offer flatcar rates, Korean VoIP services are generally metered and charged at rates similar to sublunar calling. Foreign VoIP providers meet senior high school barriers to politics registration. This issue came to a oral sex in 2006 when Internet service providers providing personal Internet services by sign to United States Forces Korea members residing on USFK bases threatened to block off access to VoIP services used by USFK members as an economical way to keep in reach with their families in the United States, on the grounds that the service members ‘ VoIP providers were not registered. A compromise was reached between USFK and korean telecommunication officials in January 2007, wherein USFK service members arriving in Korea before June 1, 2007, and subscribing to the ISP services provided on root may continue to use their US-based VoIP subscription, but late arrivals must use a Korean-based VoIP provider, which by sign will offer price exchangeable to the directly rates offered by US VoIP providers. [ 63 ]
United States [edit ]
In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission requires all interconnect VoIP service providers to comply with requirements comparable to those for traditional telecommunication military service providers. [ 64 ] VoIP operators in the US are required to support local number portability ; make service accessible to people with disabilities ; pay regulative fees, cosmopolitan service contributions, and other mandate payments ; and enable law enforcement authorities to conduct surveillance pursuant to the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act ( CALEA ). Operators of “ Interconnected ” VoIP ( in full connected to the PSTN ) are mandated to provide Enhanced 911 service without particular request, leave for customer location updates, clearly disclose any limitations on their E-911 functionality to their consumers, obtain approving acknowledgements of these disclosures from all consumers, [ 65 ] and ‘may not allow their customers to “ opt-out ” of 911 serve. ‘ [ 66 ] VoIP operators besides receive the profit of certain US telecommunications regulations, including an entitlement to interconnection and change of dealings with incumbent local anesthetic exchange carriers via wholesale carriers. Providers of “ mobile ” VoIP service—those who are unable to determine the placement of their users—are exempt from department of state telecommunications regulation. [ 67 ] Another legal issue that the US Congress is debating concerns changes to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. The issue in question is calls between Americans and foreigners. The National Security Agency ( NSA ) is not authorized to tap Americans ‘ conversations without a warrant—but the Internet, and specifically VoIP does not draw as clear a line to the location of a caller or a call ‘s recipient as the traditional phone system does. As VoIP ‘s abject monetary value and flexibility convinces more and more organizations to adopt the engineering, the surveillance for law enforcement agencies becomes more difficult. VoIP engineering has besides increased Federal security concerns because VoIP and similar technologies have made it more difficult for the government to determine where a target is physically located when communications are being intercepted, and that creates a whole arrange of new legal challenges. [ 68 ]
history [edit ]
The early developments of packet network designs by Paul Baran and early researchers were motivated by a desire for a higher degree of lap redundancy and network handiness in the confront of infrastructure failures than was possible in the circuit-switched networks in telecommunications of the mid-twentieth century. Danny Cohen first demonstrated a form of mailboat voice in 1973 as separate of a flight simulator application, which operated across the early ARPANET. [ 69 ] [ 70 ] On the early ARPANET, real-time voice communication was not possible with decompress pulse-code modulation ( PCM ) digital manner of speaking packets, which had a spot rate of 64 kbps, much greater than the 2.4 kbps bandwidth of early modems. The solution to this problem was analogue predictive cryptography ( LPC ), a lecture coding data compression algorithm that was foremost proposed by Fumitada Itakura of Nagoya University and Shuzo Saito of Nippon Telegraph and Telephone ( NTT ) in 1966. LPC was capable of language compression down to 2.4 kbps, leading to the first successful real-time conversation over ARPANET in 1974, between Culler-Harrison Incorporated in Goleta, California, and MIT Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Massachusetts. [ 71 ] LPC has since been the most widely used speech coding method acting. [ 72 ] Code-excited linear prediction ( CELP ), a type of LPC algorithm, was developed by Manfred R. Schroeder and Bishnu S. Atal in 1985. [ 73 ] LPC algorithm remain an audio coding standard in advanced VoIP engineering. [ 71 ] In the follow clock time bridge of about two decades, respective forms of mailboat telephone were developed and diligence sake groups formed to support the new technologies. Following the ending of the ARPANET project, and expansion of the Internet for commercial traffic, IP telephone was tested and deemed impracticable for commercial practice until the initiation of VocalChat in the early 1990s and then in Feb 1995 the official release of Internet Phone ( or iPhone for shortstop ) commercial software by VocalTec, based on the Audio Transceiver patent by Lior Haramaty and Alon Cohen, and followed by other VoIP infrastructure components such as telephone gateways and switching servers. soon after it became an established area of concern in commercial lab of the major IT concerns. By the late 1990s, the first softswitches became available, and modern protocols, such as H.323, MGCP and the Session Initiation Protocol ( SIP ) gained widespread attention. In the early 2000s, the proliferation of high-bandwidth always-on Internet connections to residential dwellings and businesses, spawned an diligence of Internet telephone military service providers ( ITSPs ). The exploitation of open-source telephone software, such as Asterisk PBX, fueled far-flung pastime and entrepreneurship in voice-over-IP services, applying newfangled Internet technology paradigm, such as cloud services to telephony. In 1999, a discrete cosine transform ( DCT ) audio data compression algorithm called the modified discrete cosine transform ( MDCT ) was adopted for the Siren codec, used in the G.722.1 broadband audio coding standard. [ 74 ] [ 75 ] The like year, the MDCT was adapted into the LD-MDCT actor’s line coding algorithm, used for the AAC-LD format and intended for importantly improved audio choice in VoIP applications. [ 76 ] MDCT has since been widely used in VoIP applications, such as the G.729.1 broadband codec introduced in 2006, [ 77 ] Apple ‘s FaceTime ( using AAC-LD ) introduced in 2010, [ 78 ] the CELT codec introduced in 2011, [ 79 ] the Opus codec introduced in 2012, [ 80 ] and WhatsApp ‘s voice calling feature introduced in 2015. [ 81 ]
Milestones [edit ]
See besides [edit ]
Notes [edit ]
-  IP networks may besides be more prone to DoS attacks that cause congestion .
- Technologies such as 802.3ah can be used for DSL connectivity without using ATM .
References [edit ]
- The dictionary definition of VoIP at Wiktionary
- Internet telephony travel guide from Wikivoyage