This article is about vinyl records. For music albums in general, see Album “ Long Player ” redirects here. For the album by the Faces, see Long Player ( album )
Reading: LP record – Wikipedia
For the american singer-songwriter, see LP ( singer )
|A 12-inch LP vinyl commemorate|
|Media type||Audio playback|
|Encoding||Analog groove modulation|
|Capacity||Originally 23 minutes per side, later increased by several minutes, much longer possible with very low signal level|
|Readmechanism||Microgroove stylus (maximum tip radius 0.001 in or 25 μm)|
|Dimensions||12 in (30 cm), 10 in (25 cm), 90–240 g (3.2–8.5 oz)|
The LP ( from “ long act ” [ 1 ] or “ retentive act ” ) is an analogue sound storage medium, a record player read format characterized by : a accelerate of 33+1⁄3 revolutions per minute ; a 12- or 10-inch ( 30- or 25-cm ) diameter ; consumption of the “ microgroove ” groove specification ; and a vinyl ( a copolymer of vinyl chloride acetate ) typography disk. Introduced by Columbia in 1948, it was soon adopted as a new standard by the entire record industry. aside from a few relatively minor refinements and the authoritative belated addition of stereophonic heavy, it remained the standard format for read albums ( during a period in popular music known as the album era ) [ 2 ] until its gradual successor from the 1980s to the early 2000s, foremost by cassettes, then by compendious phonograph record, and ultimately by digital music distribution. Beginning in the former 2000s, the LP has experienced a revival in popularity. [ 3 ]
Format advantages [edit ]
At the clock time the LP was introduced, closely all record player records for home use were made of an abrasive ( and consequently noisy ) shellac intensify, employed a much larger furrow, and played at approximately 78 revolutions per infinitesimal ( revolutions per minute ), limiting the play clock of a 12-inch diameter phonograph record to less than five minutes per side. The new intersection was a 12- or 10-inch ( 30 or 25 centimeter ) fine-grooved magnetic disk made of PVC ( “ vinyl ” ) and played with a smaller-tipped “ microgroove ” stylus at a accelerate of 33+1⁄3 revolutions per minute. Each side of a 12-inch LP could play for about 22 minutes. [ 4 ] merely the microgroove standard was new, as both vinyl and the 33+1⁄3 rpm speed had been used for particular purposes for many years, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as in one abortive earlier attack ( by RCA Victor ) to introduce a long-play record for home use. Although the LP was suited to classical music because of its extended continuous play clock time, it besides allowed a collection of ten or more pop music recordings to be put on a single phonograph record. previously such collections, arsenic well as longer classical music broken up into several parts, had been sold as sets of 78 revolutions per minute records in a specially imprinted “ read album ” consist of person record sleeves bound together in book phase. The practice of the word “ album ” persisted for the one-disc LP equivalent .
history [edit ]
Soundtrack phonograph record [edit ]
Neumann lathe with SX-74 cutting head Neumann lathe The prototype of the LP was the soundtrack phonograph record used by the Vitaphone motion movie audio organization, developed by western Electric and introduced in 1926. For soundtrack purposes, the less-than-five minutes of playing time of each side of a conventional 12-inch 78 revolutions per minute magnetic disk was not satisfactory. The audio had to play endlessly for at least 11 minutes, long adequate to accompany a full moon 1,000-foot ( 300 molarity ) spin of 35 millimeter film projected at 24 frames per second base. The disk diameter was increased to 16 inches ( 40 centimeter ) and the accelerate was reduced to 33+1⁄3 revolutions per hour. Unlike their smaller LP descendants, they were made with the lapp large “ standard groove ” used by 78s. Unlike conventional records, the rut started at the inside of the record area near the label and proceeded outward toward the edge. Like 78s, early soundtrack disk were pressed in an abrasive shellac compound and played with a single-use steel acerate leaf held in a massive electromagnetic pickup with a tracking military unit of five ounces ( 1.4 N ). By mid-1931 all motion picture studios were recording on ocular soundtracks, but sets of soundtrack phonograph record, mastered by dubbing from the optical tracks and scaled down to 12 inches to cut costs, were made angstrom late as 1936 for distribution to theaters still equipped with disc-only legal projectors. [ 5 ]
Radio transcription phonograph record [edit ]
From 1928 ahead, syndicated radio programming was distributed on 78 revolutions per minute phonograph record. The sex appeal of longer continuous playing meter soon led to the adoption of the Vitaphone soundtrack phonograph record format. Beginning in about 1930, 16-inch 33+1⁄3 revolutions per minute disk playing about 15 minutes per side were used for most of these “ electrical transcriptions “. Some transcriptions were, like soundtrack disk, pressed with the commencement at the center of the magnetic disk and the needle moving outbound ( in the era of shellac pressings and steel needles, needle tire considerations dictated an ‘inside start ‘ for such a long recording ) ; conversely, some commenced at the edge. Longer programs, which required respective disk sides, pioneered the system of recording odd-numbered sides wrong-side-out and even-numbered sides outside-in sol that the healthy timbre would match from the end of one side to the startle of the following. Although a pair of turntables was used, to avoid any pauses for disc-flipping, the sides had to be pressed in a loanblend of manual and automatic sequence, arranged in such a manner that no disk being played had to be turned over to play the following side in the sequence. rather of a three-disc determined having the 1–2, 3–4 and 5–6 manual sequence, or the 1–6, 2–5 and 3–4 automatic pistol sequence for use with a drop-type mechanical record record changer, air sequence coupled the sides as 1–4, 2–5 and 3–6. Some transcriptions were recorded with a vertically modulated “ mound and dale ” furrow. This was found to allow deeper freshwater bass ( because turntable rumble was laterally modulated in early radio post turntables ) and besides an extension of the high-end frequency response. Neither of these was inevitably a great advantage in practice because of the limitations of AM broadcasting. Today we can enjoy the benefits of those higher-fidelity recordings, even if the original radio audiences could not. initially, transcription disk were pressed only in shellac, but by 1932 pressings in RCA Victor ‘s vinyl-based “ Victrolac ” were appearing. other plastics were sometimes used. By the former 1930s, vinyl was standard for about all kinds of press disk except average commercial 78s, which continued to be made of shellac. Beginning in the mid-1930s, one-off 16-inch 33+1⁄3 revolutions per minute lacquer phonograph record were used by radio networks to archive recordings of their live broadcasts, and by local stations to delay the broadcast of net scheduling or to prerecord their own productions. In the late 1940s, magnetic tape recorders were adopted by the networks to pre-record shows or repeat them for airing in unlike time zones, but 16-inch vinyl pressings continued to be used into the early 1960s for non-network distribution of prerecord scheduling. function of the LP ‘s microgroove standard began in the deep 1950s, and in the 1960s the size of phonograph record was reduced to 12 inches, becoming physically indistinguishable from ordinary LPs. Unless the quantity required was very small, iron phonograph record were a more economical culture medium for distributing high-quality sound recording than magnetic tape, and CD master was, in the early years of that engineering, very expensive, so the use of LP-format arrangement magnetic disk continued into the 1990s. The King Biscuit Flower Hour is a belated exemplar, as are Westwood One ‘s The Beatle Years and Doctor Demento programs, which were sent to stations on LP at least through 1992. [ 6 ]
RCA Victor [edit ]
RCA Victor introduced an early version of a long-play record for home use in September 1931. These “ Program Transcription ” phonograph record, as Victor called them, played at 33+1⁄3 revolutions per minute and used a reasonably finer and more close spaced groove than distinctive 78s. They were to be played with a especial “ Chromium Orange ” chrome-plated steel needle. The 10-inch disk, by and large used for democratic and light authoritative music, were normally pressed in shellac, but the 12-inch phonograph record, by and large used for “ serious ” authoritative music, were normally pressed in Victor ‘s new vinyl-based “ Victrolac ” compound, which provided a much quiet playing surface. These records could hold up to 15 minutes per side. Beethoven ‘s Fifth Symphony, performed by the Philadelphia Orchestra under Leopold Stokowski, was the first 12-inch read issued. The New York Times wrote, “ What we were not prepared for was the quality of replica … incomparably fuller. ” [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ] unfortunately for Victor, it was declivitous from there. Many of the subsequent issues were not newly recordings but simply dubs made from existing 78 revolutions per minute commemorate sets. The dub were audibly subscript to the original 78s. Two-speed turntables with the 33+1⁄3 rpm accelerate were included lone on expensive high-end machines, which sold in identical minor numbers, and most people had short money to spend on groceries, let alone phonograph records in the depths of the Great Depression. Record sales in the US had dropped from a high of 105.6 million records sold in 1921 to 5.5 million in 1933 because of competition from radio and the effects of the Depression. [ 10 ] few if any modern Program Transcriptions were recorded after 1933, and two-speed turntables soon disappeared from RCA Victor ‘s record player. Except for a few recordings of backdrop music for funeral parlors, the last of the issue titles had been purged from the Victor record catalog by the end of the decade. The failure of the newfangled product left RCA Victor with a moo impression of the prospects for any screen of long-play record, influencing product exploitation decisions during the coming ten .
Columbia [edit ]
CBS Laboratories head research scientist Peter Goldmark led Columbia ‘s team to develop a record player record that would hold at least 20 minutes per side. [ 11 ] Although Goldmark was the head scientist who selected the team, he delegated most of the experimental work to William S. Bachman, whom Goldmark had lured from General Electric, and Howard H. Scott. [ 12 ] research began in 1941, was suspended during World War II, and then resumed in 1945. [ 13 ] Columbia Records unveiled the LP at a wardrobe conference in the Waldorf Astoria on June 21, [ 14 ] 1948, in two formats : 10 inches ( 25 centimetres ) in diameter, matching that of 78 revolutions per minute singles, and 12 inches ( 30 centimetres ) in diameter. [ 15 ] The initial release of 133 recordings were : 85 12-inch classical LPs ( ML 4001 to 4085 ), 26 10-inch classics ( ML 2001 to 2026 ), eighteen 10-inch democratic numbers ( CL 6001 to 6018 ), and four 10-inch adolescent records ( JL 8001 to 8004 ). According to the 1949 Columbia catalog, issued September 1948, the first twelve-inch LP was Mendelssohn ‘s Concerto in E Minor by Nathan Milstein on the violin with the New York Philharmonic, conducted by Bruno Walter ( ML 4001 ). Three ten-inch series were released : ‘popular ‘, starting with the reissue of The Voice of Frank Sinatra ( CL 6001 ) ; ‘classical ‘, numbering from Beethoven ‘s 8th symphony orchestra ( ML 2001 ), and ‘juvenile ‘, commencing with Nursery Songs by Gene Kelly ( JL 8001 ). besides released at this meter were a match of 2-LP sets, Puccini ‘s La Bohème ( SL-1 ) and Humperdinck ‘s Hansel & Gretel ( SL-2 ). All 12-inch pressings were of 220 grams vinyl. Columbia may have planned for the Bach album ML 4002 to be the beginning since the releases came in alphabetic regulate by composer ( the first 54 LPS, ML 4002 thru ML 4055, are in order from Bach to Tchaikowsky ) Nathan Milstein was very popular in the 1940s, however, so his operation of the Mendelssohn concerto was moved to ML 4001. [ 16 ] There have been three repressings of this LP, one on Columbia ‘s budget reissue Odyssey label in 1977 honoring Edison ‘s invention of recorded sound in 1877, one from classic Records to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the LP in 1998 and one from HMV ( England ) celebrating the seventieth anniversary of the LP in 2018. There is besides a certificate of deposit transcript of ML 4001. As of 2021, the original ML4001 is quite barely and a few have sold on Ebay for $ 200 to $ 500 .
populace reception [edit ]
When the LP was introduced in 1948, the 78 was the conventional format for record player records. By 1952, 78s silent accounted for slenderly more than half of the units sold in the United States, and just under half of the dollar sales. The 45, oriented toward the individual song, accounted for just over 30 % of whole sales and merely over 25 % of dollar sales. The LP represented not quite 17 % of unit sales and just over 26 % of dollar sales. [ 17 ] Ten years after their introduction, the share of whole sales for LPs in the US was about 25 %, and of dollar sales 58 %. Most of the end was taken up by the 45 ; 78s accounted for only 2 % of unit of measurement sales and 1 % of dollar sales. [ 10 ] For this argue, major labels in the United States ceased manufacture of 78s for democratic and authoritative releases in 1956 with the minor labels following courtship, with the final examination US-made 78 being produced in 1959. Canada and the UK continued production into 1960, while India, the Philippines, and South Africa produced 78s until 1965, with the death holdout, Argentina, continuing until 1970. The popularity of the LP ushered in the “ Album Era “ of English-language democratic music, beginning in the belated 1950s, as performers took advantage of the longer play time to create coherent themes or concept albums. “ The raise of the LP as a form—as an artistic entity, as they used to say—has complicated how we perceive and remember what was once the most evanescent of the arts ”, Robert Christgau wrote in Christgau’s Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies ( 1981 ). “ The album may prove a ’70s totem—briefer configurations were making a rejoinder by ten ‘s end. But for the ’70s it will remain the basic musical unit, and that ‘s o with me. I ‘ve found over the years that the long-play record, with its twenty-minute sides and four-to-six compositions/performances per slope, suits my habits of concentration perfectly. ” [ 18 ] Although the popularity of LPs began to decline in the former 1970s with the advent of Compact Cassettes, and late compendious magnetic disk, the LP survives as a format to the present day. Vinyl LP records enjoyed a revival in the early 2010s. [ 19 ] Vinyl sales in the UK reached 2.8 million in 2012. [ 20 ] US vinyl sales in 2017 reached 15.6 million and 27 million for 2020. [ 21 ]
Competing formats [edit ]
The LP was soon confronted by the “ 45 ”, a 7-inch ( 180 millimeter ) diameter fine-grooved vinyl record play at 45 revolutions per minute, introduced by RCA Victor in 1949. To compete with the LP, boxed album sets of 45s were issued, along with EP ( extended play ) 45s, which squeezed two or even three selections onto each side. Despite intense commercialize efforts by RCA Victor, the 45 ultimately succeeded entirely in replacing the 78 as the prefer format for singles. The “ final hurrah ” for the 78 revolutions per minute record in the US was the microgroove 78 serial pressed for the Audiophile tag ( Ewing Nunn, Saukville, Wis. ) in the early 1950s. This series was labeled AP-1 through about AP-40, pressed on grainless red vinyl. today AP-1 through AP-5 are identical scarce. By very tightly packing the all right groove, a bring time of 17 minutes per side was achieved. Within a copulate of years Audiophile switched to 33+1⁄3. Reel-to-reel magnetic tape recorders posed a new challenge to the LP in the 1950s, but the higher cost of pre-recorded tapes was one of respective factors that confined videotape to a niche market. Cartridge and cassette tapes were more commodious and less expensive than reel-to-reel tapes, and they became popular for use in automobiles beginning in the mid-1960s. The LP was not seriously challenged as the primary metier for listening to recorded music at home until the 1970s, however, when the audio quality of the cassette was greatly improved by better tape formulations and noise-reduction systems. By 1983, cassettes were outselling LPs in the US. [ 22 ] The Compact Disc ( candle ) was introduced in 1982. It offered a record that was, theoretically, wholly noiseless and not audibly degraded by perennial play or slight scuffs and scratches. At first, the much higher prices of CDs and four hundred players limited their aim marketplace to affluent early on adopters and audiophiles ; but prices came down, and by 1988 CDs outsold LPs. The certificate of deposit became the top-selling format, over cassettes, in 1992. [ 22 ] Along with record player records in other formats, some of which were made of other materials, LPs are now widely referred to plainly as “ vinyl ”. Since the late 1990s there has been a vinyl revival. [ 23 ] Demand has increased in recess markets, peculiarly among audiophiles, DJs, and fans of indie music, but most music sales as of 2018 came from on-line downloads and online cyclosis because of their handiness, convenience, and price. [ 21 ]
Playing clock [edit ]
With the advent of sound film or “ talkies ”, the indigence for greater memory space made 33+1⁄3 revolutions per minute records more appealing. Soundtracks – played on records synchronized to movie projectors in theatres – could not fit onto the mere five minutes per side that 78s offered. When initially introduced, 12-inch LPs played for a utmost of about 23 minutes per side, 10-inch records for around 15. [ citation needed ] They were not an immediate success, however, as they were released during the altitude of the Great Depression, and seemed frivolous to the many impoverished of the time. It was n’t until “ microgroove ” was developed by Columbia Records in 1948 that Long Players ( LPs ) reached their utmost playtime, which has continued to modern times. [ 24 ] Economics and tastes initially determined which kind of music was available on each format. Recording company executives believed upscale classical music fans would be eager to hear a Beethoven symphony or a Mozart concerto without having to flip over multiple, four-minute-per-side 78s, and that crop up music fans, who were used to listening to one song at a fourth dimension, would find the shorter time of the 10-inch LP sufficient. As a resultant role, the 12-inch format was reserved entirely for higher-priced classical recordings and Broadway shows. popular music continued to appear only on 10-inch records. Their beliefs were wrong. By the mid-1950s, the 10-inch LP, like its similarly sized 78 revolutions per minute cousin, lost the format war and was discontinued. Ten-inch records briefly reappeared as mini-LPs in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United States and Australia as a selling alternative. [ 25 ]
Exceptions [edit ]
In 1952, Columbia Records introduced “ extended-play ” LPs that played for adenine farseeing as 52 minutes, or 26 minutes per slope. [ citation needed ] These were used chiefly for the original cast albums of Broadway musicals, such as Kiss Me, Kate and My Fair Lady, or to fit an integral bet, such as the 1950 product of Don Juan in Hell, onto two LPs. The 52-minute playing time remained rare, however, because of mastering limitations, and most LPs continued to be issued with a 30- to 45-minute playing time. A small act of albums exceeded the 52-minute terminus ad quem. These records had to be cut with much narrower spacing between the grooves, which allowed for a smaller dynamic range on the records, and meant that playing the record with a tire acerate leaf could damage the read. It besides resulted in a much quiet sound with increase airfoil noise. The list of long-play vinyl records includes the 90-minute 1976 LP 90 Minutes with Arthur Fiedler and the Boston Pops, made by Radio Shack ; [ 26 ] Genesis ‘ Duke, with each side exceeding 27 minutes ; Bob Dylan ‘s 1976 album Desire, with side two lasting about thirty minutes ; Def Leppard ‘s 1987 album Hysteria, with each side exceeding 30 minutes ; Iron Maiden ‘s 1984 release Powerslave and its follow up Somewhere in Time both required this special fabrication, as each surpassed the 52 minute utmost ; Todd Rundgren ‘s 1975 album Initiation, totaling 67 min 32 second over two sides ; Paul ‘s Boutique by the Beastie Boys ; and André Previn ‘s Previn Plays Gershwin, with the London Symphony Orchestra, whose sides each exceeded 30 minutes ; [ 27 ] side two of Pink Floyd ‘s Atom Heart Mother and both sides of the Division Bell and Wings’ Greatest all exceed 28 minutes. last, several recordings of Beethoven ‘s Ninth Symphony were reissued on single disk ; these LPs contained about 35 minutes on each side, with the third base motion cleave into two parts. Spoken word and drollery albums require a smaller active range compared to musical records. therefore, they can be cut with narrower spaces between the grooves. The Comic Strip, released by Springtime Records in 1981, has a side A lasting 38 minute 4 south, and a side B lasting 31 min 8 mho, for a sum of 69 min 12 second .
Changers [edit ]
Turntables called commemorate changers could play records stacked vertically on a spindle. This arrangement encouraged the production of multiple-record sets in automatic rifle sequence. A two-record dress had Side 1 and Side 4 on one record, and Side 2 and Side 3 on the other, so the inaugural two sides could play in a changer without the hearer ‘s interposition. then the push-down storage was flipped over. Larger boxed sets used appropriate automatic pistol sequence ( 1–8, 2–7, 3–6, 4–5 ) to allow continuous playback, but this created difficulties when searching for an individual traverse .
Disadvantages [edit ]
vinyl records are vulnerable to dust, inflame heave, scuffs, and scratches. Dust in the groove is normally heard as randomness and may be ground into the vinyl by the spend stylus, causing lasting damage. A warp can cause a even “ belly laugh ” or variation of musical pitch, and if hearty it can make a record physically unplayable. A scuff will be heard as a swishing legal. A start will create an audible check mark or pop once each revolution when the stylus encounters it. A bass scratch can throw the stylus out of the groove ; if it jumps to a place far in, part of the commemorate is skipped ; if it jumps outward to a depart of the groove it precisely finished play, it can get stuck in an infinite loop, playing the lapp bit over and over until person stops it. This last type of bad luck, which in the earned run average of brittle shellac records was more normally caused by a crevice, spawned the simile “ like a fail record ” to refer to annoying and apparently endless repetition. Records used in radio stations can suffer cue burn, which results from disk jockeys placing the needle at the begin of a track, turning the record back and forth to find the demand begin of the music, then backing up about a quarter turn, so that when it is released the music will start immediately after the fraction of a moment needed for the disk to come up to full speed. When this is done repeatedly, the affect region of the rut is heavily break and a hiss heavy will be obtrusive at the startle of the chase. The work of playing a vinyl commemorate with a stylus is by its identical nature to some degree a destructive process. Wear to either the stylus or the vinyl results in belittled sound quality. criminal record clothing can be reduced importantly by the manipulation of a high-quality, correctly adjusted turntable and tonearm, a high-compliance magnetic magazine with a high-end stylus in good discipline, and careful read handle, with non-abrasive removal of dust before play and other clean if necessity. Wear from playback is eliminated by using an ocular phonograph record player, as no needle comes into contact with the phonograph record .
Groove [edit ]
The average LP has about 1,500 feet ( 460 megabyte ; 0.28 myocardial infarction ) of furrow on each english. The average tangential needle accelerate relative to the disk coat is approximately 1 mile per hour ( 1.6 kilometers per hour ; 0.45 m/s ). It travels fastest on the outside edge, unlike sound recording CDs, which change their speed of rotation to provide changeless linear speed ( CLV ). ( By contrast, CDs play from the inner radius outbound, the revoke of record player records. ) Thin, close space helix grooves that allowed for increased play prison term on a 33+1⁄3 revolutions per minute microgroove LP led to a faint pre-echo warn of upcoming loud sounds. The cutting stylus inescapably transferred some of the subsequent groove rampart ‘s caprice signal into the previous groove wall. It was discernible by some listeners throughout certain recordings but a repose enactment followed by a loud sound would allow anyone to hear a faint pre-echo of the brassy sound occurring 1.8 seconds ahead of time. [ 28 ] This problem could besides appear as post-echo, with a ghost of the sound arriving 1.8 seconds after its main caprice. Pre- and post-echo can be avoided by the use of lead alloy mastering. The first LP records introduced used fixed sales talk grooves precisely like their 78 predecessors. The practice of magnetic tape for the production of the master recordings allowed the introduction of variable peddle grooves. The magnetic videotape reproducer used to transfer the recording to the master disk was equipped with an aide playback lead positioned ahead of the main point by a distance peer to one revolution of the disk. The lone purpose of this head was to monitor the amplitude of the read. If the voice level from both the aide and chief magnetic heads was loudly, the cutting head on the disk recording lathe was driven at its normal focal ratio. If the sound level from both magnetic heads was quiet, however, then the disk cutting head could be driven at a lower focal ratio reducing the rut pitch with no danger of the adjacent grooves colliding with each other. The play time of the magnetic disk was consequently increased by an come pendent on the duration of quiet passages. The commemorate manufacturers had besides realised that by reducing the amplitude of the lower frequencies recorded in the groove, it was possible to decrease the spacing between the grooves and further addition the play time. These first gear frequencies were then restored to their original degree on playback. furthermore, if the amplitude of the high frequencies was artificially boosted on recording the disk and then subsequently reduced to their original flush on playback, the noise introduced by the magnetic disk would be reduced by a alike measure. This gave rise to an equalization frequency reception applied during record coupled with an inverse of the response applied on playback. Each disk manufacturer applied their own version of an equalization bend ( largely because each manufacturer ‘s equalization curvature was protected by interlocking patents ). Low-end reproduction equipment applied a compromise playback equalization that reproduced most disk sanely well. By contrast, amplifiers for audiophile equipment were equipped with an equalization selector with a put for most, if not all, disk manufacturers. The final effect of equalization is to allow longer dally time and lower background noise while maintaining wide fidelity of music or early content. In 1954, the Recording Industry Association of America ( RIAA ) introduced a standard equalization curve to be used by all phonograph record manufacturers. consequently, both low-quality and audiophile reproducers alike could replay any commemorate with the correct equalization. There are two versions of the reproduction RIAA equalization curve. The first bend is the inverse of the record curl designed for cheaper equipment using crystal or ceramic reproduction cartridges. The second curvature is intended for equipment fitted with magnetic reproduction cartridges where the output electric potential is dependent on the frequency of the recorded signal ( the voltage output is immediately proportional to the frequency of the record signal ; that is : the voltage doubles as the record frequency doubles ) .
Fidelity and formats [edit ]
LPs pressed in multicolored vinyl ( Sotano Beat : A Todo Color, a various-artists compilation ) and gain scandalmongering vinyl – ( Rock On Elvis by Tulsa McLean ) both from Argentina. The audio choice of LPs has increased greatly since their 1948 origin. While early LP recordings were monophonic, stereo had been demonstrated in 1881 and Alan Blumlein had patented Stereophonic legal in 1931. unsuccessful attempts were made to create stereophonic records starting in the 1920s, including Emory Cook ‘s 1952 “ binaural ” LPs using two precisely space tracks on the commemorate ( one path for each distribution channel ) that had to be played with two monaural pick-ups on a tuning-fork-shaped tonearm. The advanced organization ultimately released by Audio Fidelity Records in November 1957 uses two modulation angles, equal and diametric 45 degrees from vertical ( and sol perpendicular to each other. ) It can besides be thought of as using traditional horizontal modulation for the sum of left and properly channels ( infectious mononucleosis ), making it basically compatible with elementary mono recordings, and vertical-plane modulation for the difference of the two channels. The be are some significant advances in the format :
- Helium-cooled cutting heads that could withstand higher levels of high frequencies (Neumann SX68); previously, the cutting engineer had to reduce the HF content of the signal sent to the record cutting head, otherwise the delicate coils could burn out
- Elliptical stylus marketed by several manufacturers at the end of the 1960s
- Cartridges that operate at lower tracking forces (2.0 grams / 20 mN), beginning from the mid-1960s
- Half-speed and one-third-speed record cutting, which extends the usable bandwidth of the record
- Longer-lasting, antistatic record compounds (e.g.: RCA Dynaflex, Q-540)
- More advanced stylus tip shapes (Shibata, Van den Hul, MicroLine, etc.)
- Direct metal mastering
- Noise-reduction (CX encoding, dbx encoding), starting from 1973
- In the 1970s, quadraphonic sound (four-channel) records became available in both discrete and matrix formats. These did not achieve the popularity of stereo records due to the expense of consumer playback equipment, competing and incompatible quad recording standards, and a lack of quality in quad-remix releases. Quad never escaped the reputation of being a gimmick, and the various (mutually incompatible) discrete surround solutions required an ultrasonic carrier signal that was technically difficult to capture and suffered degradation with playing. With the advent of DVD-Audio and Super Audio CD, multi-channel recordings once favored and championed by artists like Leopold Stokowski and Glenn Gould have made a modest comeback. In addition, new surround recordings have been made for these formats and Blu-ray Audio.
- In the later 1970s, engineers Gerry Block and Burgess Macneal devised a preview system of mastering vinyl that allowed about 10–20% more music per disc while not sacrificing dynamic range. The preview tape head was positioned far enough before the program tape head to allow the disk computer enough time to measure the peaks in low frequency and thereby expand the feed appropriately for the greater excursions of groove modulation they produce. The Compudisk system was unveiled at the 1980 AES Convention, alongside the Zuma Disk Computer (made by John W. Bittner) and the Neumann VMS-80 lathe, which had its own advanced disk computer.
The constitution of vinyl used to press records ( a blend of polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl acetate ) has varied well over the years. Virgin vinyl is preferred, but during the 1970s energy crisis, it became commonplace to use recycle vinyl. Sound timbre suffered, with increase ticks, pops, and other surface noises. [ 31 ] other experiments included reducing the thickness of LPs, leading to warping and increase susceptibility to damage. Using a biscuit of 130 grams of vinyl had been the standard. Compare these to the original Columbia 12-inch LPs ( ML 4001 ) at around 220 grams each. Besides the standard black vinyl, specialization records are besides pressed on different colors of PVC/A or picture magnetic disk with a card picture sandwiched between two acquit sides. Records in different bangle shapes have besides been produced. In 2018, an austrian inauguration, Rebeat Innovation GmBH, received US $ 4.8 million in fund to develop high definition vinyl records that purport to contain longer turn times, loud volumes and higher fidelity than conventional vinyl LPs. [ 32 ] Rebeat Innovation, headed by CEO Günter Loibl, has called the format ‘HD Vinyl ‘. [ 33 ] The HD process works by converting audio to a digital 3D topography map that is then inscribed onto the vinyl stamping machine via lasers, resulting in less loss of information. many critics have expressed incredulity regarding the monetary value and quality of HD records. [ 34 ] In May 2019, at the Making Vinyl conference in Berlin, Loibl unveiled the Perfect Groove software for creating 3D topographical audio data files. [ 35 ] This is a critical step in the production of HD Vinyl stampers, as they provide the map for subsequent laser-engraving. The audio technology software was created with mastering engineers Scott Hull and Darcy Proper, a four-time Grammy achiever. The demonstration offered the first simulations of what HD Vinyl records are likely to sound like, ahead of actual HD vinyl physical record production. Loibl discussed the Perfect Groove software at a display titled “ Vinyl 4.0 The future generation of making records ” before offering demonstrations to attendees. [ 36 ]
manipulation by magnetic disk jockeys [edit ]
Disc jockeys ( or DJs ) in club however frequently use vinyl records, as cueing tracks from cassette tapes is besides slow and CDs did not allow creative playback options until 2001. The condition “ DJ ”, which had always meant a person who played diverse pieces of music on the radio receiver ( primitively 78s, then 45s, then tape cartridges and reels ; now cuts from CDs or tracks on a calculator ) – a play on the horse-race terminus “ cheat ” – has besides come to encompass all kinds of skills in “ scratching “ ( record playback handling ) and mixing dance music, rapping over the music or tied playing musical instruments, but the original dance club ( non-radio ) definition was just person who played records, alternating between two turntables. The skill came in subtly matching beats or instruments from one sung to the adjacent, providing a consistent dance tempo. DJs besides made occasional announcements and chatted on the side with patrons while songs were playing to take requests, exchangeable to what radio disk jockeys have been doing since the 1940s .