Toronto – Wikipedia

Capital city of Ontario, Canada
This article is about the city in Ontario. For other uses, see Toronto ( disambiguation ) “ City of Toronto ” redirects here. For the city ‘s government, see municipal government of Toronto

City in Ontario, Canada
Toronto ( tə-RON-toh, tə-RON-tə or TRON-tə ) [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] is the capital city of the canadian state of Ontario. With a commemorate population of 2,794,356 in 2021, [ 15 ] it is the most populous city in Canada and the fourth most populous city in North America. The city is the anchor of the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration of 9,765,188 people ( as of 2021 ) surrounding the western end of Lake Ontario, [ 16 ] while the Greater Toronto Area proper had a 2021 population of 6,712,341. [ 17 ] Toronto is an external center of occupation, finance, arts, and culture, and is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ] autochthonal peoples have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, located on a broad slop tableland interspersed with rivers, thick ravines, and urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. [ 21 ] After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the british Crown, the british established the township of York in 1793 and late designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. [ 23 ] During the War of 1812, the town was the web site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by american troops. [ 24 ] York was renamed and incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the state of Ontario in 1867 during canadian Confederation. [ 25 ] The city proper has since expanded past its original limits through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2 ( 243.3 sq nautical mile ). The divers population of Toronto reflects its current and historic character as an important address for immigrants to Canada. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] More than 50 percentage of residents belong to a visible minority population group, [ 28 ] and over 200 clear-cut cultural origins are represented among its inhabitants. [ 29 ] While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their basal terminology, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. [ 30 ] The mayor of Toronto is elected by mastermind popular vote to serve as the headman executive of the city. The Toronto City Council is a unicameral legislative body, comprising 25 councillors since the 2018 municipal election, representing geographic wards throughout the city. [ 31 ] Toronto is a outstanding kernel for music, [ 32 ] field, [ 33 ] apparent motion painting product, [ 34 ] and television production, [ 35 ] and is home to the headquarters of Canada ‘s major national circulate networks and media outlets. [ 36 ] Its vary cultural institutions, [ 37 ] which include numerous museums and galleries, festivals and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, and sports activities, [ 38 ] attract over 43 million tourists each year. [ 39 ] [ 40 ] Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, [ 41 ] in particular the tallest free-standing structure on kingdom in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. [ 42 ] The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada ‘s five largest banks, and the headquarters of many boastfully canadian and multinational corporations. Its economy is highly diversified with strengths in engineering, design, fiscal services, life sciences, education, arts, fashion, aerospace, environmental invention, food services, and tourism. [ 45 ] [ 46 ] [ 47 ] Toronto is the third-largest ( and fastest growing ) technical school hub in North America after Silicon Valley and New York City. [ 48 ] [ 49 ]



The parole Toronto was recorded with assorted spellings in French and English, including Tarento, Tarontha, Taronto, Toranto, Torento, Toronto, and Toronton. Taronto referred to “ The Narrows ”, a channel of urine through which Lake Simcoe discharges into Lake Couchiching where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. This narrows was called tkaronto by the Mohawk, meaning “ where there are trees standing in the water, ” [ 52 ] [ 53 ] and was recorded adenine early as 1615 by Samuel de Champlain. The give voice “ Toronto ”, meaning “ batch ” besides appears in a 1632 french dictionary of the Huron speech, which is besides an iroquoian terminology. It besides appears on french maps referring to assorted locations, including georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, and several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to far-flung habit of the identify .

Pre-19th hundred

The site of Toronto lay at the entrance to one of the oldest routes to the northwestern, a path known and used by the Huron, Iroquois, and Ojibwe, and was of strategic importance from the begin of Ontario ‘s record history. [ 57 ] In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississaugas had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their fatherland in contemporary New York .
In the seventeenth hundred, the area was a all-important yoke for travel, with the Humber and Rouge rivers providing a shortcut to the amphetamine Great Lakes. These routes together were known as the Toronto Passage french traders founded Fort Rouillé in 1750 ( the current Exhibition grounds were late developed hera ), but abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years ‘ War. [ 59 ] The british defeated the french and their autochthonal allies in the war, and the area became part of the british colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an inflow of british settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario. The Crown granted them domain to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies. The new state of Upper Canada was being created and needed a capital. In 1787, the british Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres ( 1000 km2 ) of land in the Toronto sphere. [ 60 ] Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. The first 25 years after the Toronto buy was calm, although “ there were occasional freelancer fur traders ” confront in the area, with the common complaints of orgy and drink. [ 57 ] In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark ( Niagara-on-the-Lake ) to York, [ 61 ] believing the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States. [ 62 ] The York garrison was built at the entrance of the township ‘s natural harbor, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town ‘s settlement formed at the seaport ‘s easterly end behind the peninsula, near the contemporary intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street ( in the “ Old Town “ area ) .

nineteenth century

In 1813, as depart of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the township ‘s capture and sack by United States forces. [ 63 ] John Strachan negotiated the town ‘s resignation. american soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set ardor to the fantan buildings during their five-day occupation. Because of the displace of York, british troops retaliated later in the war with the burn off of Washington, D.C .
York was incorporated as the City of Toronto on March 6, 1834, adopting an autochthonal name. Reformist politician William Lyon Mackenzie became the first mayor of Toronto and led the abortive Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 against the british colonial government. Toronto ‘s population of 9,000 included african-american slaves, some of whom were brought by the Loyalists, including Mohawk drawing card Joseph Brant, and fewer Black Loyalists, whom the Crown had freed ( most of the latter were resettled in Nova Scotia ). By 1834, refugee slaves from America ‘s South were besides immigrating to Toronto, settling in Canada to gain exemption. [ 64 ] Slavery was banned outright in Upper Canada ( and throughout the british Empire ) in 1834. [ 65 ] Torontonians incorporate people of semblance into their society. In the 1840s, an eat family at Frederick and King Streets, a put of mercantile prosperity in the early city, was operated by a black man named Bloxom. As a major destination for immigrants to Canada, the city grew quickly through the remainder of the nineteenth hundred. The foremost significant wave of immigrants were irish, fleeing the Great Irish Famine ; most of them were Catholic. By 1851, the Irish-born population had become the largest single heathen group in the city. The scottish and english population welcomed smaller numbers of Protestant Irish immigrants, some from what is now Northern Ireland, which gave the Orange Order significant and durable influence over Toronto society .
view of Toronto in 1854. Toronto became a major destination for immigrants to Canada in the second half of the nineteenth hundred. For brief periods, Toronto was doubly the capital of the unite state of Canada : first from 1849 to 1852, following unrest in Montreal, and late 1856–1858. After this date, Quebec was designated as the capital until 1866 ( one year before canadian Confederation ). Since then, the capital of Canada has remained Ottawa, Ontario. [ 67 ] Toronto became the capital of the state of Ontario after its official creation in 1867. The seat of government of the Ontario Legislature is at Queen ‘s Park. Because of its peasant capital condition, the city was besides the localization of Government House, the residence of the viceregal representative of the Crown in right of Ontario. long before the Royal Military College of Canada was established in 1876, supporters of the concept proposed military colleges in Canada. Staffed by british Regulars, adult male students underwent a three-month-long military course at the School of Military Instruction in Toronto. Established by Militia General Order in 1864, the school enabled officers of militia or candidates for commission or promotion in the Militia to learn military duties, exercise and discipline, to command a company at Battalion Drill, to drill a company at Company Drill, the internal economy of a company, and the duties of a ship’s company ‘s officer. [ 68 ] The school was retained at Confederation, in 1867. In 1868, Schools of cavalry and weapon teaching were formed in Toronto. [ 69 ]
The Gooderham and Worts buildings c. nineteenth century. The distillery became the populace ‘s largest whiskey factory by the 1860s. In the nineteenth century, the city built an extensive sewage system to improve sanitation, and streets were illuminated with natural gas alight as a regular serve. Long-distance railroad track lines were constructed, including a route completed in 1854 linking Toronto with the Upper Great Lakes. The Grand Trunk Railway and the Northern Railway of Canada joined in the building of the first Union Station in business district. The second coming of the railway dramatically increased the numbers of immigrants arriving, commerce and industry, as had the Lake Ontario steamers and schooners entering port before. These enabled Toronto to become a major gateway linking the populace to the inner of the north american celibate. Toronto became the largest alcohol distillation ( in especial, spirits ) centre in North America. By the 1860s, the Gooderham and Worts Distillery operations became the populace ‘s largest whiskey factory. A preserve section of this once dominant local industry remains in the Distillery District. The harbor allowed for certain access to grain and sugar imports used in process. Expanding interface and fulminate facilities brought in northern timber for export and imported Pennsylvania coal. Industry dominated the waterfront for the next 100 years .
horse-drawn streetcars in 1890. The city ‘s streetcar system transitioned to electric-powered streetcars in 1892. horse-drawn streetcars gave way to electric streetcars in 1891, when the city granted the operation of the theodolite franchise to the Toronto Railway Company. The populace transit system passed into public ownership in 1921 as the Toronto Transportation Commission, former renamed the Toronto Transit Commission. The system nowadays has the third-highest ridership of any city populace exile system in North America. [ 70 ]

twentieth hundred

The Great Toronto Fire of 1904 destroyed a large section of downtown Toronto. The fire destroyed more than 100 buildings. [ 71 ] The fire claimed one victim, John Croft, who was an explosive adept clearing the ruins from the fire. [ 72 ] It caused CA $ 10,387,000 in damage ( roughly CA $ 277,600,000 in 2020 terms ). [ 73 ] The city received new european immigrant groups beginning in the late nineteenth century into the early twentieth hundred, peculiarly Germans, french, Italians, and Jews. They were soon followed by Russians, Poles, and early eastern european nations, in summation to chinese entering from the West. As the Irish before them, many of these migrants lived in overcrowd shanty-type slums, such as “ the Ward “ which was centred on Bay Street, nowadays the heart of the state ‘s Financial District .
As new migrants began to prosper, they moved to better house in early areas, in what is now silent to be succession waves of colony. Despite its fast-paced emergence, by the 1920s, Toronto ‘s population and economic importance in Canada remained second to the much longer established Montreal, Quebec. however, by 1934, the Toronto Stock Exchange had become the largest in the state. In 1954, the City of Toronto and 12 surrounding municipalities were federated into a regional government known as Metropolitan Toronto. [ 74 ] The postwar boom had resulted in rapid suburban development and it was believed a coordinate land-use scheme and shared services would provide greater efficiency for the region. The metropolitan government began to manage services that crossed municipal boundaries, including highways, police services, water and public theodolite. In that year, a half-century after the Great Fire of 1904, calamity struck the city again when Hurricane Hazel brought intense winds and flash implosion therapy. In the Toronto area, 81 people were killed, about 1,900 families were leave homeless, and the hurricane caused more than CA $ 25 million in price. [ 75 ] In 1967, the seven smallest municipalities of Metropolitan Toronto were merged with larger neighbours, resulting in a six-municipality configuration that included the early city of Toronto and the surrounding municipalities of East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough, and York. [ 76 ]
In the decades after World War II, refugees from war-torn Europe and chinese job-seekers arrived, ampere well as construction labourers, peculiarly from Italy and Portugal. Toronto ‘s population grew to more than one million in 1951 when large-scale suburbanization began and doubled to two million by 1971. Following the elimination of racially based immigration policies by the former 1960s, Toronto became a destination for immigrants from all parts of the populace. By the 1980s, Toronto had surpassed Montreal as Canada ‘s most populous city and chief economic hub. During this time, in region owing to the political doubt raised by the revival of the Quebec reign apparent motion, many national and multinational corporations moved their head offices from Montreal to Toronto and Western Canadian cities. [ 77 ] On January 1, 1998, Toronto was greatly enlarged, not through traditional annexations, but as an amalgamation of the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto and its six lower-tier constituent municipalities : East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough, York, and the original city itself. They were dissolved by an act of the Government of Ontario, and formed into a single-tier City of Toronto ( colloquially dubbed the “ megacity “ ) replacing all six governments. The amalgamation was proposed as a cost-saving quantify by the Progressive Conservative provincial politics under Mike Harris. The announcement touched off blatant public objections. In March 1997, a referendum in all six municipalities produced a vote of more than 3:1 against amalgamation. [ 78 ] however, municipal governments in Canada are creatures of the peasant governments, and referendums have fiddling to no legal effect. The Harris government could thus legally ignore the results of the referendum, and did then in April when it tabled the City of Toronto Act. Both opposition parties held a filibuster in the provincial legislature, proposing more than 12,000 amendments that allowed residents on streets of the proposed megacity take separate in public hearings on the fusion and adding historic designations to the streets. [ 79 ] This only delayed the bill ‘s inevitable passage, given the PCO ‘s majority. North York mayor Mel Lastman became the first “ megacity ” mayor, and the 62nd mayor of Toronto, with his electoral victory. [ 80 ] Lastman gained national attention after multiple snowstorms, including the January Blizzard of 1999, dumped 118 curium of coke and effectively immobilized the city. [ 81 ] [ 82 ] He called in the canadian Army to aid snow removal by use of their equipment to augment police and hand brake services. The motivate was ridiculed by some in other parts of the country, fuelled in separate by what was perceived as a frivolous use of resources. [ 83 ] [ 84 ]

twenty-first century

The city attracted international attention in 2003 when it became the center of a major Severe acute respiratory syndrome ( SARS ) outbreak. Public health attempts to prevent the disease from spreading elsewhere temporarily dampened the local economy. [ 85 ] From August 14–17, 2003, the city was hit by a massive amnesia which affected millions of Torontonians ( it besides affected most of Southern Ontario and parts of the United States ), stranding some hundreds of people in tall buildings, knocking out traffic lights and suspending metro and streetcar servicing across the city during those aforesaid days. [ 86 ] On March 6, 2009, the city celebrated the hundred-and-seventy-fifth anniversary of its origin as the City of Toronto in 1834. Toronto hosted the 4th G20 summit during June 26–27, 2010. This included the largest security operation in canadian history. Following large-scale protests and carouse, law enforcement conducted the largest batch catch ( more than a thousand people ) in canadian history. [ 87 ] On July 8, 2013, dangerous flash deluge hit Toronto after an afternoon of slow-moving, intense thunderstorms. Toronto Hydro estimated 450,000 people were without power after the storm and Toronto Pearson International Airport reported 126 millimeter ( 5 in ) of rain had fallen over five hours, more than during Hurricane Hazel. [ 88 ] Within six months, from December 20 to 22, 2013, Toronto was brought to a dear crippled by the worst ice storm in the city ‘s history, rivalling the badness of the 1998 Ice Storm ( which by and large affected southeastern Ontario, and Quebec ). At the stature of the storm, over 300,000 Toronto Hydro customers had no electricity or heat. [ 89 ] Toronto hosted WorldPride in June 2014, [ 90 ] and the Pan American Games in 2015. [ 91 ] The city continues to grow and attract immigrants. A study by Ryerson University showed that Toronto was the fastest-growing city in North America. The city added 77,435 people between July 2017 and July 2018. The Toronto metropolitan sphere was the second-fastest-growing metropolitan sphere in North America, adding 125,298 persons, compared with 131,767 in the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metroplex in Texas. The large growth in the Toronto metropolitan area is attributed to international migration to Toronto. [ 92 ] The COVID-19 pandemic in Canada first occurred in Toronto and is among the hotspots in the country. [ 93 ] [ 94 ] Toronto will host some games in the group stagecoach of the 2026 FIFA World Cup, besides to be held in diverse other cities across North America. [ 95 ]


Toronto covers an area of 630 square kilometres ( 243 sq mile ), [ 96 ] with a maximum north–south distance of 21 kilometres ( 13 mi ). It has a maximum east–west distance of 43 km ( 27 nautical mile ) and it has a 46-kilometre ( 29 security service ) long waterfront shoreline, on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. The Toronto Islands and Port Lands extend out into the lake, allowing for a reasonably sheltered Toronto Harbour south of the downtown kernel. [ 97 ] An Outer Harbour was constructed southeast of downtown during the 1950s and 1960s and it is immediately used for refreshment. The city ‘s borders are formed by Lake Ontario to the south, the western boundary of Marie Curtis Park, Etobicoke Creek, Eglinton Avenue and Highway 427 to the west, Steeles Avenue to the north and the Rouge River and the Scarborough–Pickering town line to the east .


Satellite image of Toronto and surrounding sphere. Urban areas of the city are interrupted by the Toronto ravine organization The city is by and large flat or pacify hills and the land gently slopes up away from the lake. The flat nation is interrupted by the Toronto ravine system, which is cut by numerous creeks and rivers of the Toronto waterway organization, most notably the Humber River in the west end, the Don River east of business district ( these two rivers flanking and defining the Toronto Harbour ), and the Rouge River at the city ‘s eastern limits. Most of the ravines and valley lands in Toronto today are parklands, and amateur trails are laid out along the ravines and valleys. The original town was laid out in a grid design on the flat plain north of the harbor, and this design was carry outwards as the city grew. The width and astuteness of several of the ravines and valleys are such that respective grid streets, such as Finch Avenue, Leslie Street, Lawrence Avenue, and St. Clair Avenue, end on one side of a ravine or valley and continue on the other side. Toronto has many bridges spanning the ravines. large bridges such as the Prince Edward Viaduct were built to span across-the-board river valleys. Despite its deep ravines, Toronto is not unusually cragged, but its natural elevation does increase steadily away from the lake. elevation differences range from 76.5 metres ( 251 foot ) above sea level at the Lake Ontario shore to 209 megabyte ( 686 foot ) above sea level near the York University grounds in the city ‘s north end at the intersection of Keele Street and Steeles Avenue. [ 98 ] There are casual cragged areas ; in detail, midtown Toronto has a number of precipitously sloping hills. Lake Ontario remains occasionally visible from the peaks of these ridges as far north as Eglinton Avenue, 7 to 8 kilometres ( 4.3 to 5.0 nautical mile ) inland. The early major geographic feature of Toronto is its escarpments. During the final frosting age, the lower partially of Toronto was beneath Glacial Lake Iroquois. today, a series of escarpments mark the lake ‘s former limit, known as the “ Iroquois Shoreline ”. The escarpments are most outstanding from Victoria Park Avenue to the mouth of Highland Creek where they form the Scarborough Bluffs. other discernible sections include the area near St. Clair Avenue West between Bathurst Street and the Don River, and north of Davenport Road from Caledonia to Spadina Road ; the Casa Loma grounds sit above this escarpment. [ 99 ] The geography of the lakeside is greatly changed since the foremost settlement of Toronto. Much of the land on the north shore of the harbor is landfill, filled in during the late nineteenth century. Until then, the lakefront docks ( then known as wharves ) were set back farther inland than today. much of the adjacent Port Lands on the east side of the harbor was a wetland filled in early in the twentieth hundred. [ 100 ] The shoreline from the harbor west to the Humber River has been extended into the lake. further west, landfill has been used to create extensions of down such as Humber Bay Park. The Toronto Islands were a lifelike peninsula until a storm in 1858 severed their connection to the mainland, [ 101 ] creating a channel to the harbor. The peninsula was formed by longshore drift taking the sediments deposited along the Scarborough Bluffs shore and transporting them to the Islands area .
The early source of sediment for the Port Lands wetland and the peninsula was the deposit of the Don River, which carved a wide valley through the aqueous land of Toronto and deposited it in the shallow harbor. The seaport and the duct of the Don River have been dredged numerous times for transport. The lower section of the Don River was straightened and channelled in the nineteenth century. The former mouth drained into a wetland ; today, the Don River drains into the seaport through a concrete waterway, the Keating Channel. To mitigate flood in the area, angstrom well as to create park, a second more natural mouth is being built to the south during the early 2020s, thereby creating Villiers Island .


Climate chart (explanation)
joule f meter A m joule joule A sulfur o north d





































Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Environment Canada[102]

The city of Toronto has a hot summer humid continental climate ( Köppen : Dfa ), [ 103 ] though was on the brink of a warm summer humid continental climate ( Dfb ) until the twentieth hundred but still found in the metropolitan region, [ 104 ] with warm, humid summers and cold winters. According to the categorization applied by Natural Resources Canada, the city of Toronto is in plant boldness zone 7a, with some suburbs & nearby towns having lower partition ratings. [ 105 ] [ 106 ] The city experiences four clear-cut seasons, with considerable variance in length. [ 107 ] As a result of the rapid passage of weather systems ( such as high- and low-pressure systems ), the weather is variable from day to day in all seasons. [ 107 ] Owing to urbanization and its proximity to water system, Toronto has a reasonably depleted diurnal temperature image. The dense urbanscape makes for warmer nights year round ; the average night temperature is about 3.0 °C ( 5.40 °F ) warm in the city than in rural areas in all months. [ 108 ] however, it can be perceptibly cool on many spring and early summer afternoons under the influence of a lake breeze, since Lake Ontario is cool relative to the air during these seasons. [ 108 ] These lake breezes largely occur in summer, bringing respite on hot days. [ 108 ] other low-scale maritime effects on the climate include lake-effect snow, fog, and delaying of spring- and fall-like conditions, known as seasonal stave. [ 108 ]
Winters in Toronto are typically cold with frequent snow. Winters are cold with frequent snow. [ 109 ] During the winter months, temperatures are normally below 0 °C ( 32 °F ). [ 109 ] Toronto winters sometimes feature cold snaps when maximum temperatures remain below −10 °C ( 14 °F ), often made to feel cold by wind chill. occasionally, they can drop below −25 °C ( −13 °F ). [ 109 ] Snowstorms, sometimes shuffle with methamphetamine and rain, can disrupt exercise and travel schedules, while accumulating snow can fall anytime from November until mid-April. however, balmy stretches besides occur in most winters, melting accumulated bamboozle. The summer months are characterized by very warm temperatures. [ 109 ] Daytime temperatures are normally above 20 °C ( 68 °F ), and often rise above 30 °C ( 86 °F ). [ 109 ] however, they can occasionally surpass 35 °C ( 95 °F ) accompanied by high humidity. bounce and fall are transitional seasons with by and large balmy or aplomb temperatures with alternating dry and wet periods. [ 108 ] Daytime temperatures modal around 10 to 12 °C ( 50 to 54 °F ) during these seasons. [ 109 ] precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, but summer is normally the wettest season, the majority falling during thunderstorms. The average annual precipitation is about 831 mm ( 32.7 in ), with an average annual snow of about 1,220 mm ( 48 in ). [ 110 ] Toronto experiences an average of 2,066 sunlight hours or 45 % of day hours, varying between a low of 28 % in December to 60 % in July. [ 110 ]


Map of Toronto with major dealings routes. besides shown are the boundaries of six former municipalities, which form the current City of Toronto. Toronto encompasses an area once administered by respective branch municipalities that were amalgamated over the years. Each developed a distinct history and identity over the years, and their names remain in common function among Torontonians. Former municipalities include East York, Etobicoke, Forest Hill, Mimico, North York, Parkdale, Scarborough, Swansea, Weston and York. Throughout the city there exists hundreds of humble neighbourhoods and some larger neighbourhoods covering a few square kilometres. [ citation needed ] The many residential communities of Toronto express a character distinct from the skyscrapers in the commercial core. priggish and Edwardian-era residential buildings can be found in enclaves such as Rosedale, Cabbagetown, The Annex, and Yorkville. [ 118 ] The Wychwood Park vicinity, historically significant for the architecture of its homes, and for being one of Toronto ‘s earliest planned communities, was designated as an Ontario Heritage Conservation district in 1985. [ 119 ] The Casa Loma vicinity is named after “ Casa Loma ”, a castle built in 1911 by Sir Henry Pellat, complete with gardens, turrets, stables, an elevator, confidential passages, and a bowling bowling alley. [ 120 ] Spadina House is a 19th-century manor that is now a museum. [ 121 ]

Old Toronto

The pre-amalgamation City of Toronto covers the downtown core and besides older neighbourhoods to the east, west, and north of it. It is the most dumbly populate separate of the city. The Financial District contains the First canadian Place, Toronto-Dominion Centre, Scotia Plaza, Royal Bank Plaza, Commerce Court and Brookfield Place. This area includes, among others, the neighbourhoods of St. James Town, Garden District, St. Lawrence, Corktown, and Church and Wellesley. From that point, the Toronto skyline extends northbound along Yonge Street. [ citation needed ] Old Toronto is besides home to many historically affluent residential enclaves, such as Yorkville, Rosedale, The Annex, Forest Hill, Lawrence Park, Lytton Park, Deer Park, Moore Park, and Casa Loma, most stretching aside from downtown to the north. [ citation needed ] East and west of business district, neighbourhoods such as Kensington Market, Chinatown, Leslieville, Cabbagetown and Riverdale are home to bustling commercial and cultural areas vitamin a well as communities of artists with studio lofts, with many middle- and upper-class professionals. [ citation needed ] early neighbourhoods in the central city retain an heathen identity, including two smaller Chinatowns, the Greektown area, Little Italy, Portugal Village, and Little India, among others. [ citation needed ]


In an try to curb suburban sprawl, many suburban neighbourhoods in Toronto encouraged high-density populations by mixing house lots with apartment buildings far from the downtown core. The inner suburbs are contained within the erstwhile municipalities of York and East York. [ 122 ] These are mature and traditionally propertyless areas, consisting primarily of post–World War I small, single-family homes and little apartment blocks. [ 122 ] Neighbourhoods such as Crescent Town, Thorncliffe Park, Weston, and Oakwood Village consist chiefly of high-rise apartments, which are home to many new immigrant families. During the 2000s, many neighbourhoods have become ethnically divers and have undergo gentrification as a resultant role of increasing population, and a caparison boom during the belated 1990s and the early twenty-first century. The first neighbourhoods affected were Leaside and North Toronto, gradually progressing into the westerly neighbourhoods in York. [ citation needed ] The out suburb comprising the former municipalities of Etobicoke ( west ), Scarborough ( east ) and North York ( north ) largely retain the grid plan laid before post-war development. [ 123 ] Sections were long established and cursorily growing towns before the suburban house thunder began and the emergence of metropolitan government, existing towns or villages such as Mimico, Islington and New Toronto in Etobicoke ; Willowdale, Newtonbrook and Downsview in North York ; Agincourt, Wexford and West Hill in Scarborough where suburban growth boomed around or between these and other towns beginning in the former 1940s. upscale neighbourhoods were built such as the Bridle Path in North York, the area surrounding the Scarborough Bluffs in Guildwood, and most of central Etobicoke, such as Humber Valley Village, and The Kingsway. One of largest and earliest “ plan communities ” was Don Mills, parts of which were first gear built in the 1950s. [ 124 ] Phased development, mixing single-detached house with higher-density apartment blocks, became more popular as a suburban model of development. Over the late twentieth hundred and early twenty-first hundred, North York City Centre, Etobicoke City Centre and Scarborough City Centre have emerged as junior-grade business districts outside Downtown Toronto. High-rise development in these areas has given the former municipalities distinguishable skylines of their own, with high-density transit corridors serving them. [ citation needed ]


The Distillery District holds the largest collection of keep victorian industrial architecture in North America. In the 1800s, a boom industrial area developed around Toronto Harbour and lower Don River mouth, linked by vilify and water system to Canada and the United States. Examples included the Gooderham and Worts Distillery, canadian Malting Company, the Toronto Rolling Mills, the Union Stockyards and the Davies pork serve facility ( the inspiration for the “ Hogtown ” dub ). [ 125 ] [ 126 ] This industrial area expanded west along the harbor and rail lines and was supplemented by the infilling of the marshlands on the east side of the harbor to create the Port Lands. A dress industry developed along lower Spadina Avenue, the “ Fashion District “. Beginning in the former nineteenth century, industrial areas were set up on the outskirts, such as West Toronto/The Junction, where the Stockyards relocated in 1903. [ 127 ] The Great Fire of 1904 destroyed a large amount of industry in the downtown. Some of the companies moved west along King Street, some as far west as Dufferin Street ; where the large Massey-Harris grow equipment manufacture complex was located. [ 128 ] Over clock time, pockets of industrial land by and large followed railing lines and later highway corridors as the city grew outwards. This drift continues to this day, the largest factories and distribution warehouses are in the suburban environs of Peel and York Regions ; but besides within the current city : Etobicoke ( concentrated around Pearson Airport ), North York, and Scarborough. [ citation needed ]
many of Toronto ‘s former industrial sites close to ( or in ) business district have been redeveloped including parts of the Toronto waterfront, the rail yards west of business district, and Liberty Village, the Massey-Harris zone and large-scale development is afoot in the West Don Lands. [ citation needed ] The Gooderham & Worts Distillery produced spirits until 1990, and is preserved nowadays as the “ Distillery District ”, the largest and best-preserved solicitation of priggish industrial architecture in North America. Some industry remains in the sphere, including the Redpath Sugar Refinery. Similar areas that retain their industrial character, but are nowadays largely residential are the Fashion District, Corktown, and parts of South Riverdale and Leslieville. Toronto still has some active older industrial areas, such as Brockton Village, Mimico and New Toronto. In the west end of Old Toronto and York, the Weston/ Mount Dennis and The Junction areas still contain factories, meat-packing facilities and rail yards close to medium-density residential, although the Junction ‘s Union Stockyards moved out of Toronto in 1994. [ 127 ] The brownfield industrial area of the Port Lands, on the east side of the harbor, is one area planned for renovation. [ 130 ] once a marsh that was filled in to create industrial space, it was never intensely build up — its land inapplicable for large-scale development — because of deluge and unstable dirty. [ 131 ] It however contains numerous industrial uses, such as the Portlands Energy Centre baron implant, some port facilities, some movie and television receiver production studios, a concrete process adeptness and versatile low-density industrial facilities. The Waterfront Toronto agency has developed plans for a established talk to the Don River and to create a deluge barrier around the Don, making more of the farming on the harbor desirable for higher-value residential and commercial development. [ 132 ] A former chemicals plant locate along the Don River is slated to become a boastfully commercial complex and department of transportation hub. [ 133 ]


Population history of Toronto
Year Pop. ±%
1834 9,252 —    
1841 14,249 +54.0%
1851 30,776 +116.0%
1861 44,821 +45.6%
1871 56,092 +25.1%
1881 86,415 +54.1%
1891 144,023 +66.7%
1901 238,080 +65.3%
1911 381,383 +60.2%
1921 521,893 +36.8%
1931 856,955 +64.2%
1941 951,549 +11.0%
1951 1,176,622 +23.7%
1961 1,824,481 +55.1%
1971 2,089,729 +14.5%
1976 2,124,291 +1.7%
1981 2,137,395 +0.6%
1986 2,192,721 +2.6%
1991 2,275,771 +3.8%
1996 2,385,421 +4.8%
2001 2,481,494 +4.0%
2006 2,503,281 +0.9%
2011 2,615,060 +4.5%
2016 2,731,571 +4.5%
2021 2,794,356 +2.3%
Source: [134][135][136][137][138][139]

In the 2021 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Toronto had a population of 2,794,356 living in 1,160,892 of its 1,253,238 total private dwellings, a transfer of 2.3 % from its 2016 population of 2,731,571. With a land area of 631.1 km2 ( 243.7 sq security service ), it had a population concentration of 4,427.8/km2 ( 11,467.8/sq secret intelligence service ) in 2021. [ 140 ] At the census metropolitan area ( CMA ) level in the 2021 census, the Toronto CMA had a population of 6,202,225 support in 2,262,473 of its 2,394,205 total private dwellings, a change of 4.6 % from its 2016 population of 5,928,040. With a land area of 5,902.75 km2 ( 2,279.06 sq mi ), it had a population density of 1,050.7/km2 ( 2,721.4/sq security service ) in 2021. [ 141 ] In 2016, persons aged 14 years and under made up 14.5 per cent of the population, and those aged 65 years and over made up 15.6 per cent. [ 142 ] The median age was 39.3 years. [ 142 ] The city ‘s gender population is 48 per penny male and 52 per cent female. [ 142 ] Women outnumber men in all old age groups 15 and older. [ 142 ] The city ‘s foreign-born persons made up 47 per cent of the population, [ 28 ] compared to 49.9 per penny in 2006. [ 143 ] According to the United Nations Development Programme, Toronto has the second-highest percentage of ceaseless foreign-born population among populace cities, after Miami, Florida. While Miami ‘s foreign-born population has traditionally consisted chiefly of Cubans and other latin Americans, no individual nationality or polish dominates Toronto ‘s immigrant population, placing it among the most divers cities in the world. [ 143 ] In 2010, it was estimated over 100,000 immigrants arrive in the Greater Toronto Area each year. [ 144 ]


In 2016, the three most normally reported cultural origins overall were Chinese ( 332,830 or 12.5 per cent ), English ( 331,890 or 12.3 per cent ) and Canadian ( 323,175 or 12.0 per cent ). [ 28 ] Common regions of ethnic origin were European ( 47.9 per penny ), asian ( including Middle-Eastern – 40.1 per penny ), African ( 5.5 per penny ), Latin/Central/South American ( 4.2 per penny ), and north american native ( 1.2 per cent ). [ 28 ] In 2016, 51.5 per penny of the residents of the city proper belonged to a visible minority group, compared to 49.1 per penny in 2011, [ 28 ] [ 145 ] and 13.6 per penny in 1981. [ 146 ] The largest visible minority groups were South Asian ( indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan at 338,960 or 12.6 per cent ), East Asian ( Chinese at 332,830 or 12.5 per penny ), and Black ( 239,850 or 8.9 per penny ). [ 28 ] visible minorities are projected to increase to 63 per penny of the city ‘s population by 2031. [ 147 ] This diversity is reflected in Toronto ‘s cultural neighbourhoods, which include Chinatown, Corso Italia, Greektown, Kensington Market, Koreatown, Little India, Little Italy, Little Jamaica, Little Portugal and Roncesvalles ( Polish community ). [ 148 ]


Questions on religion are conducted in every early canadian census, with the latest census to include them being the 2011 canadian Census. [ 149 ] In 2011, the most normally reported religion in Toronto was Christianity, adhered to by 54.1 per cent of the population. A plurality, 28.2 per cent, of the city ‘s population was Catholic, followed by Protestants ( 11.9 per penny ), christian Orthodox ( 4.3 per cent ), and members of early christian denominations ( 9.7 per cent ). other religions significantly practised in the city are Islam ( 8.2 per penny ), Hinduism ( 5.6 per penny ), Judaism ( 3.8 per penny ), Buddhism ( 2.7 per penny ), and Sikhism ( 0.8 per cent ). Those with no religious affiliation made up 24.2 per penny of Toronto ‘s population. [ 145 ]

linguistic process

English is the overriding speech spoken by Torontonians with approximately 95 per penny of residents having proficiency in the linguistic process, although only 54.7 per cent of Torontonians reported English as their mother tongue. [ 150 ] English is one of two official languages of Canada, with the other being french. approximately 1.6 per penny of Torontonians reported french as their beget natural language, although 9.1 per penny reported being bilingual in both official languages. [ 150 ] In summation to services provided by the federal government, peasant services in Toronto are available in both official languages as a leave of the French Language Services Act. [ 151 ] approximately 4.9 per cent of Torontonians reported having no cognition in either of the official languages of the state. [ 150 ] Because the city is besides home to many early languages, municipal services, most notably its 9-1-1 hand brake telephone service, [ speed of light ] is equipped to respond in over 150 languages. [ 152 ] [ 153 ] In the 2001 canadian Census, the collective varieties of Chinese, and italian are the most widely spoken languages at workplace after English. [ 154 ] [ 155 ] approximately 55 per penny of respondents who reported proficiency in a chinese language reported cognition in Mandarin in the 2016 census. [ 150 ]


Toronto is an international center for clientele and finance. by and large considered the fiscal and industrial capital of Canada, Toronto has a high concentration of banks and brokerage firms on Bay Street in the Financial District. The Toronto Stock Exchange is the earth ‘s seventh-largest banal exchange by marketplace capitalization. [ 156 ] The five largest fiscal institutions of Canada, jointly known as the Big Five, have national offices in Toronto. The city is an crucial centre for the media, publication, telecommunication, information engineering and film production industries ; it is home to Bell Media, Rogers Communications, and Torstar. early big canadian corporations in the Greater Toronto Area include Magna International, Celestica, Manulife, Sun Life Financial, the Hudson ‘s Bay Company, and major hotel companies and operators, such as Four Seasons Hotels and Fairmont Hotels and Resorts. Although much of the region ‘s manufacture activities take station outside the city limits, Toronto continues to be a wholesale and distribution steer for the industrial sector. The city ‘s strategic situation along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor and its road and rail connections help support the nearby output of drive vehicles, cast-iron, steel, food, machinery, chemicals and newspaper. The completion of the Saint Lawrence Seaway in 1959 gave ships access to the Great Lakes from the Atlantic Ocean. Toronto ‘s unemployment rate was 6.7 % as of July 2016. [ 157 ] According to the web site Numbeo, Toronto ‘s cost of living plus lease index was second base highest in Canada ( of 31 cities ). [ 158 ] The local buy exponent was the one-sixth gloomy in Canada, mid-2017. [ 159 ] The average monthly sociable aid caseload for January to October 2014 was 92,771. The count of seniors living in poverty increased from 10.5 % in 2011 to 12.1 % in 2014. Toronto ‘s 2013 child poverty pace was 28.6 %, the highest among big canadian cities of 500,000 or more residents. [ 160 ]

Bay Street

The Financial District in Toronto centers on Bay Street, the equivalent to Wall Street in New York. The city hosts the headquarters of all five of Canada ‘s largest banks, Royal Bank of Canada, Toronto-Dominion Bank, Scotiabank, Bank of Montreal and Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, and was ranked as the safest banking system in the earth between 2007 and 2014 the World Economic Forum. [ 122 ] Toronto ‘s economy has seen a steady boom in growth thanks to a large number of corporations relocating their canadian headquarters into the city, and Canada ‘s growing cultural significance. Resulting in a number of companies setting up shop in Toronto .

Hollywood North

Toronto is one of the centres of Canada ‘s film and television industry, due in part to the lower cost of production in Canada. The city ‘s streets and landmarks are seen in a variety of films, mimicking the scenes of american cities such as Chicago and New York. The city provides a diversity of settings and neighbourhoods to shoot films, with production facilitated by Toronto ‘s Film and Television Office. Toronto ‘s film diligence has extended beyond the Toronto CMA into adjoining cities such as Hamilton and Oshawa .


Toronto is a large hub of the Canadian and ball-shaped engineering industry, generating $ 52 billion in revenues annually. In 2017, Toronto technical school firms offered about 30,000 jobs which is higher than the combination of San Francisco Bay area, Seattle and Washington, D.C. [ 161 ] The area restrict between the Greater Toronto Area, the Kitchener-Waterloo region and the City of Hamilton was termed a “ digital corridor ” by the Branham Group, [ 162 ] a region highly concentrated with engineering companies and jobs alike to Silicon Valley in California. It is the third gear largest center for information and communication engineering in North America, coming in behind New York City and Silicon Valley, [ 163 ] with over 168,000 people and 15,000 companies working in the Toronto engineering sector alone. [ 164 ] Toronto is besides home to a large inauguration ecosystem. In 2013, the city was ranked as the 8th best startup view in the universe and 3rd when it came to performance and support. [ 165 ]

real estate

real estate is a major force in the city ‘s economy, Toronto is home to some of the nation’s—and the world’s—most expensive very estate. The Toronto Regional Real Estate Board ( TRREB ), once the Toronto Real Estate Board, is a non-profit professional association of register real estate of the realm brokers and salesperson in Toronto, and parts of the Greater Toronto Area. [ 166 ] TRREB was formed in 1920. [ 166 ] Many large Real estate of the realm investment trusts are based in Toronto .

Arts and acculturation

Toronto is the universe ‘s third base largest center for English-language field, home to venues like the Royal Alexandra Theatre, the oldest endlessly operating theater in North America . Caribana is a festival celebrating Caribbean culture and traditions. Held each summer in the city, it is North America’s largest street festival. Toronto ‘s theater and performing arts scenery has more than fifty ballet and dance companies, six opera companies, two symphony orchestra orchestras and a server of theatres. The city is home to the National Ballet of Canada, the canadian Opera Company, the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, the Canadian Electronic Ensemble, and the canadian Stage Company. luminary performance venues include the Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts, Roy Thomson Hall, the Princess of Wales Theatre, the Royal Alexandra Theatre, Massey Hall, the acme Arts Centre ( once the Toronto Centre for the Arts ), the Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres and the Meridian Hall ( in the first place the “ O’Keefe Centre ” and once the “ Hummingbird Centre ” and the “ Sony Centre for the Performing Arts ” ). Ontario Place features the world ‘s first permanent wave IMAX movie dramaturgy, the Cinesphere, [ 167 ] arsenic well as the Budweiser Stage ( once Molson Amphitheatre ), an alfresco venue for music concerts. In spring 2012, Ontario Place closed after a refuse in attendance over the years. Although the Budweiser Stage and harbour distillery operate, the ballpark and Cinesphere are no long in habit. There are ongoing plans to revitalise Ontario Place. [ 168 ] Each summer, the canadian Stage Company presents an outdoor Shakespeare output in Toronto ‘s High Park called “ Dream in High Park ”. Canada ‘s Walk of Fame acknowledges the achievements of successful Canadians, with a series of stars on delegate blocks of sidewalks along King Street and Simcoe Street. The output of domestic and alien film and television receiver is a major local diligence. As of 2011, Toronto ranks as the third largest production center for film and television after Los Angeles and New York City, [ 169 ] sharing the nickname “ Hollywood North “ with Vancouver. [ 170 ] [ 171 ] [ 172 ] The Toronto International Film Festival is an annual event celebrating the international film diligence. Another esteemed film festival is the Take 21 ( once the Toronto Student Film Festival ), which screens the works of students 12–18 years of senesce from many different countries across the earth. Toronto ‘s Caribana ( once known as Scotiabank Caribbean Carnival ) takes place from mid-july to early August of every summer. [ 173 ] chiefly based on the Trinidad and Tobago Carnival, the first Caribana took place in 1967 when the city ‘s Caribbean community celebrated Canada ‘s Centennial. More than forty years former, it has grown to attract one million people to Toronto ‘s Lake Shore Boulevard annually. tourism for the festival is in the hundred thousands, and each class, the event generates over $ 400 million in gross into Ontario ‘s economy. [ 174 ] One of the largest events in the city, Pride Week takes place in late June, and is one of the largest LGBT festivals in the world. [ 175 ]


Toronto ‘s buildings vary in design and long time with many structures dating back to the early nineteenth hundred, while other big buildings were merely newly built in the first base decade of the twenty-first hundred. [ 176 ] Lawrence Richards, a member of the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Toronto, has said, “ Toronto is a new, brash, rag-tag place—a big shuffle of periods and styles. ” [ 177 ] Bay-and-gable houses, chiefly found in Old Toronto, are a distinct architectural feature of the city. Defining the Toronto horizon is the CN Tower, a telecommunication and tourism hub. Completed in 1976 at a stature of 553.33 metres ( 1,815 foot 5 in ), it was the world ‘s tallest [ 178 ] freestanding social organization until 2007 when it was surpassed by Burj Khalifa in Dubai. [ 179 ] Toronto is a city of high-rises, and had 1,875 buildings over 30 metres ( 98 foot ) as of 2011. [ 180 ] Through the 1960s and 1970s, significant pieces of Toronto ‘s architectural inheritance were demolished to make way for renovation or park. In contrast, since 2000, amid the Canadian property ripple, Toronto has experienced a period of condominium structure boom and architectural revival, with respective buildings by world-renowned architects having opened. Daniel Libeskind ‘s Royal Ontario Museum addition, Frank Gehry ‘s remake of the Art Gallery of Ontario, and Will Alsop ‘s classifiable OCAD University expansion are among the city ‘s new showpieces. [ 181 ] The mid-1800s Distillery District, on the eastern edge of business district, has been redeveloped into a pedestrian-oriented arts, culture and entertainment vicinity. [ 182 ] This construction boom has some observers call the phenomenon the Manhattanization of Toronto .
Toronto horizon at dusk, from Toronto Harbour looking north, in 2018


In 2018, 27.5 million tourists visited Toronto, generating $ 10.3 billion in economic bodily process. [ 183 ] The Toronto Eaton Centre receives over 47 million visitors per class. [ 184 ] other commercial areas popular with tourists include the PATH network, which is the world ‘s largest [ 185 ] metro shop complex, american samoa well as Kensington Market and St. Lawrence Market. [ 186 ] The Toronto Islands are close to downtown Toronto, and do not permit private motive vehicles beyond the airport. other tourist attractions include the CN Tower, Casa Loma, Toronto ‘s theaters and musicals, Yonge-Dundas Square, and Ripley ‘s Aquarium of Canada. The Royal Ontario Museum is a museum of populace acculturation and natural history. The Toronto Zoo [ 187 ] [ 188 ] is home to over 5,000 animals representing over 460 discrete species. The Art Gallery of Ontario contains a large solicitation of Canadian, European, African and contemporary artwork, and besides plays server to exhibits from museums and galleries all over the worldly concern. The Gardiner Museum of ceramic artwork is the only museum in Canada entirely devoted to ceramics, and the Museum ‘s collection contains more than 2,900 ceramic works from Asia, the Americas, and Europe. The city besides hosts the Ontario Science Centre, the Bata Shoe Museum, and Textile Museum of Canada. other outstanding art galleries and museums include the Design Exchange, the Museum of Inuit Art, the TIFF Bell Lightbox, the Museum of Contemporary Art Toronto Canada, the Institute for Contemporary Culture, the Toronto Sculpture Garden, the CBC Museum, the Redpath Sugar Museum, the University of Toronto Art Centre, Hart House, the TD Gallery of Inuit Art, Little Canada and the Aga Khan Museum. The city besides runs its own museums, which include the Spadina House .
The Don Valley Brick Works is a former industrial site that opened in 1889 and was partially restored as a park and inheritance site in 1996, with far restoration being completed in stages since then. The canadian National Exhibition ( “ The Ex ” ) is held annually at Exhibition Place, and is the oldest annual honest in the world. The Ex has an average attendance of 1.25 million. [ 189 ] City denounce areas include the Yorkville vicinity, Queen West, Harbourfront, the Entertainment District, the Financial District, and the St. Lawrence Market vicinity. The Eaton Centre is Toronto ‘s most popular tourist attraction with over 52 million visitors per annum. [ 190 ] Greektown on the Danforth is home to the annual “ sample of the Danforth “ festival which attracts over one million people in 2+1⁄2 days. [ 191 ] Toronto is besides family to Casa Loma, the former estate of Sir Henry Pellatt, a outstanding Toronto financier, industrialist and military man. other celebrated neighbourhoods and attractions in Toronto include The Beaches, the Toronto Islands, Kensington Market, Fort York, and the Hockey Hall of Fame .

Public spaces

Toronto has a divers align of public spaces, from city squares to public parks overlooking ravines. Nathan Phillips Square is the city ‘s main square in business district, contains the 3D Toronto sign of the zodiac, [ 192 ] and forms the entrance to City Hall. Yonge–Dundas Square, near City Hall, has besides gained attention in late years as one of the busiest gathering spots in the city. other squares include Harbourfront Square, on the Toronto waterfront, and the civil squares at the former city halls of the defunct Metropolitan Toronto, most notably Mel Lastman Square in North York. The Toronto Public Space Committee is an advocacy group concerned with the city ‘s populace spaces. In recent years, Nathan Phillips Square has been refurbished with raw facilities, and the central waterfront along Queen ‘s Quay West has been updated recently with a new street architecture and a newly square future to Harbourfront Centre. In the winter, Nathan Phillips Square, Harbourfront Centre, and Mel Lastman Square feature democratic rinks for public ice-skating. Etobicoke ‘s Colonel Sam Smith Trail opened in 2011 and is Toronto ‘s beginning skating trail. Centennial Park and Earl Bales Park extend outdoor skiing and snowboarding slopes with a chairlift, rental facilities, and lessons. several parks have marked cross-country skiing trails. There are many big downtown parks, which include Allan Gardens, Christie Pits, Grange Park, Little Norway Park, Moss Park, Queen ‘s Park, Riverdale Park and Trinity Bellwoods Park. An about shroud park is the pack Cloud Gardens, [ 193 ] which has both outdoors areas and a glassed-in greenhouse, near Queen and Yonge. South of business district are two large parks on the waterfront : Tommy Thompson Park on the Leslie Street Spit, which has a nature preserve, is clear on weekends ; and the Toronto Islands, accessible from downtown by ferry. big parks in the out areas managed by the city include High Park, Humber Bay Park, Centennial Park, Downsview Park, Guild Park and Gardens, Sunnybrook Park and Morningside Park. [ 194 ] Toronto besides operates respective public golf courses. Most ravine lands and river bank floodplains in Toronto are populace parklands. After Hurricane Hazel in 1954, construction of buildings on floodplains was outlawed, and private lands were bought for conservation. In 1999, Downsview Park, a former military base in North York, initiated an external design competition to realize its vision of creating Canada ‘s beginning urban park. The winner, “ Tree City ”, was announced in May 2000. approximately 8,000 hectares ( 20,000 acres ), or 12.5 percentage of Toronto ‘s land base is maintained park. [ 195 ] Morningside Park is the largest parking lot managed by the city, which is 241.46 hectares ( 596.7 acres ) in size. [ 195 ] In addition to public parks managed by the municipal government, parts of Rouge National Urban Park, the largest urban park in North America, is in the eastern share of Toronto. Managed by Parks Canada, the national ballpark is centred around the Rouge River and encompasses several municipalities in the Greater Toronto Area. [ 196 ]


Toronto is represented in five major league sports, with teams in the National Hockey League ( NHL ), Major League Baseball ( MLB ), National Basketball Association ( NBA ), canadian Football League ( CFL ), and Major League Soccer ( MLS ). It was once represented in a one-sixth and one-seventh ; the USL W-League that announced on November 6, 2015, that it would cease operation ahead of 2016 season and the Canadian Women ‘s Hockey League ceased operations in May 2019. [ 197 ] [ 198 ] [ 199 ] The city ‘s major sports venues include the Scotiabank Arena ( once Air Canada Centre ), Rogers Centre ( once SkyDome ), Coca-Cola Coliseum ( once Ricoh Coliseum ), and BMO Field. Toronto is one of four north american english cities ( aboard Chicago, Los Angeles, & Washington, D.C. ) to have won titles in its five major leagues ( MLB, NHL, NBA, MLS and either NFL or CFL ), and the lone one to have done then in the Canadian Football League .

professional sports

Toronto is home to the Toronto Maple Leafs, one of the NHL ‘s Original Six clubs, and has besides served as home to the Hockey Hall of Fame since 1958. The city had a rich people history of frost ice hockey championships. Along with the Maple Leafs ‘ 13 Stanley Cup titles, the Toronto Marlboros and St. Michael ‘s College School -based Ontario Hockey League teams, combined, have won a record 12 Memorial Cup titles. The Toronto Marlies of the American Hockey League besides play in Toronto at Coca-Cola Coliseum and are the farm team for the Maple Leafs. The Toronto Six, the first canadian franchise in the National Women ‘s Hockey League, began play with the 2020–21 season. The city is home to the Toronto Blue Jays MLB baseball team. The team has won two World Series titles ( 1992, 1993 ). The Blue Jays play their home games at the Rogers Centre in the downtown core. Toronto has a long history of minor-league professional baseball dating back to the 1800s, culminating in the Toronto Maple Leafs baseball team, whose owner beginning proposed an MLB team for Toronto. [ 200 ]
The Toronto Raptors basketball team entered the NBA in 1995, and have since earned eleven playoff spots and five Atlantic Division titles in 24 seasons. They won their first NBA title in 2019. [ 201 ] The Raptors are the only NBA team with their own television groove, NBA TV Canada. They play their home games at Scotiabank Arena, which is shared with the Maple Leafs. In 2016, Toronto hosted the sixty-fifth NBA All-Star plot, the first gear to be held outside the United States. [ 202 ] The city is represented in canadian football by the CFL ‘s Toronto Argonauts, which was founded in 1873. The golf club has won 17 Grey Cup Canadian championship titles. The club ‘s home games are played at BMO Field. Toronto is represented in soccer by the Toronto FC MLS team, who have won seven canadian Championship titles, a well as the MLS Cup in 2017 and the Supporters ‘ Shield for best regular season record, besides in 2017. [ 203 ] They share BMO Field with the Toronto Argonauts. Toronto has a high floor of engagement in soccer across the city at several smaller stadiums and fields. Toronto FC had entered the league as an expansion team in 2007. [ 204 ] [ 205 ] The Toronto Rock is the city ‘s National Lacrosse League team. They won five National Lacrosse League Cup titles in seven years in the recently 1990s and the foremost ten of the twenty-first hundred, appearing in an NLL-record five straightaway championship games from 1999 to 2003, and are first all-time in the total of Champion ‘s Cups won. The Rock share the Scotiabank Arena with the Maple Leafs and the Raptors. Toronto has hosted respective National Football League ( NFL ) exhibition games at the Rogers Centre. Ted Rogers leased the Buffalo Bills from Ralph Wilson for the purposes of having the Bills maneuver eight home games in the city between 2008 and 2013. The Toronto Wolfpack became Canada ‘s first professional rugby league team and the world ‘s first transatlantic professional sports team when they began play in the Rugby Football League ‘s League One competition in 2017. [ 206 ] due to COVID-19 restrictions on international travel the team withdrew from the Super League in 2020 with its future uncertain. [ 207 ] The rugby club ‘s possession changed in 2021, now ‘Team Wolfpack ‘ will play in the newly formed union american Rugby League tournament. [ 208 ] Toronto is home to the Toronto Rush, a semi-professional ultimate team that competes in the american english Ultimate Disc League ( AUDL ). [ 209 ] [ 210 ] Ultimate ( magnetic disk ), in Canada, has its beginning roots in Toronto, with 3300 players competing annually in the Toronto Ultimate Club ( League ). [ 211 ]

Collegiate sports

The University of Toronto in business district Toronto was where the first recorded college football game was held in November 1861. [ 212 ] many post-secondary institutions in Toronto are members of U Sports or the canadian Collegiate Athletic Association, the erstwhile for universities and the latter for colleges. Toronto was home to the International Bowl, an NCAA sanctioned post-season college football plot that pitted a Mid-American Conference team against a Big East Conference team. From 2007 to 2010, the game was played at Rogers Centre annually in January .


Toronto, along with Montreal, hosts an annual tennis tournament called the Canadian Open ( not to be confused with the identically named golf tournament ) between the months of July and August. In odd-numbered years, the men ‘s tournament is held in Montreal, while the women ‘s tournament is held in Toronto, and vice versa in even-numbered years .
The city hosts the annual Honda Indy Toronto car race, character of the IndyCar Series schedule, held on a street tour at Exhibition Place. It was known previously as the Champ Car ‘s Molson Indy Toronto from 1986 to 2007. Both thoroughbred and standardbred sawhorse racing events are conducted at Woodbine Racetrack in Rexdale. Toronto hosted the 2015 Pan american Games in July 2015, and the 2015 Parapan american Games in August 2015. It beat the cities of Lima, Peru and Bogotá, Colombia, to win the rights to stage the games. [ 213 ] The games were the largest multi-sport consequence ever to be held in Canada ( in terms of athletes competing ), double the size of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia. [ 214 ] Toronto was a candidate city for the 1996 and 2008 Summer Olympics, which were awarded to Atlanta and Beijing respectively. [ 215 ] historic sports clubs of Toronto include the Granite Club ( established in 1836 ), the Royal Canadian Yacht Club ( established in 1852 ), the Toronto Cricket Skating and Curling Club ( established before 1827 ), the Argonaut Rowing Club ( established in 1872 ), the Toronto Lawn Tennis Club ( established in 1881 ), and the Badminton and Racquet Club ( established in 1924 ) .


Toronto is a single-tier municipality governed by a mayor–council arrangement. The structure of the municipal government is stipulated by the City of Toronto Act. The mayor of Toronto is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the chief administrator of the city. The Toronto City Council is a unicameral legislative consistency, comprising 25 councillors, since the 2018 municipal election, representing geographic wards throughout the city. [ 31 ] The mayor and members of the city council serve four-year terms without term limits. ( Until the 2006 municipal election, the mayor and city councillors served three-year terms. ) As of 2016, the city council has twelve standing committees, each consist of a professorship ( some have a vice-chair ), and a total of councillors. [ 216 ] The mayor names the committee chairs and the remaining members of the committees are appointed by city council. An administrator committee is formed by the chairs of each of standing committee, along with the mayor, the deputy mayor and four other councillors. Councillors are besides appointed to oversee the Toronto Transit Commission and the Toronto Police Services Board. The city has four community councils that consider local matters. City council has delegated concluding decision-making assurance on local anesthetic, routine matters, while others—like planning and zoning issues—are recommended to the city council. Each city council member serves as a member of a community council. [ 216 ] There are about 40 subcommittees and advisory committees appointed by the city council. These bodies are made up of city councillors and private citizen volunteers. Examples include the pedestrian Committee, Waste Diversion Task Force 2010, and the Task Force to Bring Back the Don. [ 217 ] The City of Toronto had an approved operate budget of CA $ 13.53 billion in 2020 and a ten-year das kapital budget and plan of CA $ 43.5 billion. [ 218 ] The city ‘s revenues include subsidies from the Government of Canada and the Government of Ontario ( for programs mandated by those governments ), 33 % from place tax, 6 % from the nation transfer tax and the rest from early tax revenues and exploiter fees. [ 219 ] The city ‘s largest manoeuver expenditures are the Toronto Transit Commission at CA $ 2.14 billion, [ 220 ] and the Toronto Police Service, CA $ 1.22 billion. [ 221 ]


The historically broken crime rate in Toronto has resulted in the city having a reputation as one of the safest major cities in North America. [ 222 ] [ 223 ] [ 224 ] For exemplify, in 2007, the homicide rate for Toronto was 3.3 per 100,000 people, compared with Atlanta ( 19.7 ), Boston ( 10.3 ), Los Angeles ( 10.0 ), New York City ( 6.3 ), Vancouver ( 3.1 ), and Montreal ( 2.6 ). Toronto ‘s looting pace besides ranks first gear, with 207.1 robberies per 100,000 people, compared with Los Angeles ( 348.5 ), Vancouver ( 266.2 ), New York City ( 265.9 ), and Montreal ( 235.3 ). [ 225 ] [ 226 ] [ 227 ] [ 228 ] [ 229 ] [ 230 ] Toronto has a comparable rate of car larceny to respective U.S. cities, although it is not among the highest in Canada. [ 222 ] In 2005, Toronto media coined the term “ class of the Gun ”, because of a record count of gun-related homicides, 52, out of 80 homicides in entire. [ 224 ] [ 231 ] The sum total of homicides dropped to 70 in 2006 ; that year, closely 2,000 people in Toronto were victims of a crimson gun-related crime, about one-fourth of the national total. [ 232 ] 84 homicides were committed in 2007, roughly half of which involve guns. Gang-related incidents have besides been on the rise ; between the years of 1997 and 2005, over 300 gang-related homicides have occurred. As a consequence, the Ontario politics developed an anti-gun scheme. [ 233 ] In 2011, Toronto ‘s murder rate plummeted to 51 murders—nearly a 26 % neglect from the previous year. The 51 homicides were the lowest number the city has recorded since 1999 when there were 47. [ 234 ] While subsequent years did see a tax return to higher rates, it remained about flat cable of 57–59 homicides in from 2012 to 2015. 2016 went to 75 for the inaugural time in over 8 years. 2017 had a drop off of 10 murders to close the year at 65, with a homicide rate of 1.47 per 100,000 population. [ 235 ] [ 236 ] The total act of homicides in Toronto reached a record 96 in 2018 ; the number included fatalities from the Toronto avant-garde attack and the Danforth photograph. The record year for per head murders was previously 1991, with 3.9 murders per 100,000 people. [ 237 ] The 2018 homicide rate was higher than in Winnipeg, Calgary, Edmonton, Vancouver, Ottawa, Montreal, Hamilton, New York City, San Diego, and Austin. [ 238 ]



Toronto is home to twenty public hospitals, including The hospital for Sick Children, Mount Sinai Hospital, St. Michael ‘s Hospital, North York General Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto Western Hospital, Etobicoke General Hospital, St. Joseph ‘s Health Centre, Scarborough General Hospital, Birchmount Hospital, Centenary Hospital, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health ( CAMH ), and Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, many of which are affiliated with the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine. In 2007, Toronto was reported as having some of the longer average emergency room waiting times in Ontario. Toronto hospitals at the clock employed a system of triage to ensure dangerous injuries receive rapid treatment. [ 239 ] After initial screening, initial assessments by physicians were completed within the waiting rooms themselves for greater efficiency, within a medial of 1.2 hours. Tests, consultations, and initial treatments were besides provided within waiting rooms. 50 % of patients waited 4 hours before being transferred from the emergency room to another room. [ 239 ] The least-urgent 10 % of cases wait over 12 hours. [ 239 ] The gallop waiting-room times experienced by some patients were attributed to an overall dearth of acute worry beds. [ 239 ] Toronto ‘s Discovery District [ 240 ] is a center of inquiry in biomedicine. It is on a 2.5-square-kilometre ( 620-acre ) research park that is integrated into Toronto ‘s downtown kernel. It is besides home to the MaRS Discovery District, [ 241 ] which was created in 2000 to capitalize on the research and initiation military capability of the Province of Ontario. Another establish is the McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine ( MCMM ). [ 242 ] specialize hospitals are besides outside of the downtown core. These hospitals include the Baycrest Health Sciences geriatric hospital and the Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital for children with disabilities. Toronto is besides host to a broad kind of health-focused non-profit organizations that work to address particular illnesses for Toronto, Ontario and canadian residents. Organizations include Crohn ‘s and Colitis Canada, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the canadian Cancer Society, the Alzheimer Society of Canada, Alzheimer Society of Ontario and Alzheimer Society of Toronto, all located in the like office at Yonge–Eglinton, the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society of Canada, the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation, the Canadian Foundation for AIDS Research, Cystic Fibrosis Canada, the Canadian Mental Health Association, the ALS Society of Canada, and many others. These organizations work to help people within the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, or Canada who are affected by these illnesses. Toronto is besides home to the Geneva Centre for Autism. As well, most of these organizations engage in fundraising to promote research, services, and populace awareness .

transportation system

Toronto is a central department of transportation hub for road, rail and atmosphere networks in Southern Ontario. There are many forms of tape drive in the city of Toronto, including highways and populace transit. Toronto besides has an across-the-board network of bicycle lanes and multi-use trails and paths .

public department of transportation

Toronto ‘s main populace transportation arrangement is operated by the Toronto Transit Commission ( TTC ). [ 70 ] The spinal column of its public tape drive network is the Toronto metro organization, which includes three heavy-rail rapid theodolite lines spanning the city, including the u-shaped Line 1 and east–west occupation 2. Line 3 is a unhorse metro channel that entirely serves the city ‘s eastern zone of Scarborough .
The TTC besides operates an extensive network of buses and streetcars, with the latter serving the downtown core, and buses providing service to many parts of the city not served by the sparse metro network. TTC buses and streetcars use the lapp do system as the underpass, and many underpass stations offer a fare-paid area for transfers between fulminate and coat vehicles. There have been numerous plans to extend the metro and follow through light-rail lines, but many efforts have been thwarted by budgetary concerns. Since July 2011, the only subway-related study is the Line 1 extension north of Sheppard West station ( once named Downsview ) to Vaughan Metropolitan Centre in Vaughan, a suburb north of Toronto. By November 2011, construction on Line 5 Eglinton began. Line 5 is scheduled to finish construction by 2022. [ 243 ] [ 244 ] In 2015, the Ontario government promised to fund Line 6 Finch West which is to be completed by 2023. In 2019, the Government of Ontario released a transit plan for the Greater Toronto Area which includes a new 16-kilometres Ontario Line, [ 245 ] Line 1 extension to Richmond Hill Centre [ 246 ] and an extension for Line 5 Eglinton to Toronto Pearson Airport. [ 247 ] [ 248 ] Toronto ‘s century-old Union Station is besides getting a major renovation and upgrade which would be able to accommodate more train traffic from GO Transit, Via Rail, UP Express and Amtrak. [ 249 ] construction on a new Union Station Bus Terminal is besides in the works with an ask completion in 2020. [ 250 ] Toronto ‘s public transit network besides connects to early municipal networks such as York Region Transit, Viva, Durham Region Transit, and MiWay. The Government of Ontario operates a regional track and bus topology theodolite system called GO Transit in the Greater Toronto Area. GO Transit carries over 250,000 passengers every weekday ( 2013 ) and 57 million per annum, with a majority of them travelling to or from Union Station. [ 251 ] [ 252 ] Metrolinx is presently implementing Regional Express Rail into its GO Transit network and plans to electrify many of its rail lines by 2030. [ 253 ]


Canada ‘s busiest airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport ( IATA : YYZ ), straddles the city ‘s western limit with the suburban city of Mississauga. The Union Pearson Express ( UP Express ) train service provides a direct connect between Pearson International and Union Station. It began carrying passengers in June 2015. Limited commercial and passenger service to nearby destinations in Canada and the USA is offered from the Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport ( IATA : YTZ ) on the Toronto Islands, southwest of downtown. Buttonville Municipal Airport ( IATA : YKZ ) in Markham provides general air travel facilities. Downsview Airport ( IATA : YZD ), near the city ‘s north goal, is owned by de Havilland Canada and serves the Bombardier Aviation aircraft factory. Within a few hours ‘ drive, Hamilton ‘s John C. Munro International Airport ( IATA : YHM ) and Buffalo ‘s Buffalo Niagara International Airport ( IATA : BUF ) serve as surrogate airports for the Toronto area in summation to serving their respective cities. A secondary international airport, to be located northeast of Toronto in Pickering, has been planned by the Government of Canada .

Intercity fare

Toronto Union Station serves as a hub for VIA Rail ‘s intercity services in Central Canada and includes services to versatile parts of Ontario, Corridor services to Montreal and national capital Ottawa, and long-distance services to Vancouver and New York City. The Toronto Coach Terminal in business district Toronto besides serves as a hub for intercity bus services in Southern Ontario, served by multiple companies and providing a comprehensive network of services in Ontario and neighbor provinces and states. GO Transit provides intercity bus services from the Union Station Bus Terminal and other bus terminals in the city to destinations within the greater Toronto area .


The grid of major city streets was laid out by a concession road organization, in which major arterial roads are 6,600 ft ( 2.0 kilometer ) apart ( with some exceptions, peculiarly in Scarborough and Etobicoke, as they used a unlike view ). major east-west arterial roads are by and large parallel with the Lake Ontario shoreline, and major north–south arterial roads are roughly plumb line to the shoreline, though slightly angle north of Eglinton Avenue. This arrangement is sometimes broken by geographic accidents, most notably the Don River ravines. Toronto ‘s grid north is approximately 18.5° to the west of true north. many arterials, particularly north–south ones, due to the city originally being within the former York County, continue beyond the city into the 905 suburbs and further into the rural countryside. There are a number of municipal expressways and provincial highways that serve Toronto and the Greater Toronto Area. In particular, Highway 401 bisects the city from west to east, bypassing the downtown core. It is the busiest road in North America, [ 254 ] and one of the busiest highways in the world. [ 255 ] [ 256 ] early peasant highways include Highway 400 which connects the city with Northern Ontario and beyond and Highway 404, an extension of the Don Valley Parkway into the northern suburbs. The Queen Elizabeth Way ( QEW ), North America ‘s first gear divided intercity highway, terminates at Toronto ‘s western boundary and connects Toronto to Niagara Falls and Buffalo. The chief municipal expressways in Toronto include the Gardiner Expressway, the Don Valley Parkway, and to some extent, Allen Road. Toronto ‘s dealings congestion is one of the highest in North America, and is the moment highest in Canada after Vancouver. [ 257 ]

Public library

Toronto Public Library is the largest populace library arrangement in Canada, and in 2008 had averaged a higher circulation per head than any early public library system internationally, making it the largest neighbourhood-based library organization in the earth. [ 258 ] Within North America, it besides had the highest circulation and visitors when compared to other large urban systems. [ 259 ] Established as the library of the Mechanics ‘ Institute in 1830, the Toronto Public Library now consists of 100 branch libraries [ 260 ] and has over 12 million items in its collection. [ 259 ] [ 261 ] [ 262 ] [ 263 ]

department of education

There are four public school boards that provide elementary and secondary education in Toronto, the Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir, the Conseil scolaire Viamonde ( CSV ), the Toronto Catholic District School Board ( TCDSB ), and the Toronto District School Board ( TDSB ). CSV and TDSB are secular public school boards, whereas MonAvenir and TCDSB are separate populace school boards. CSV and MonAvenir are french first gear language educate boards, whereas TCDSB and TDSB are English beginning linguistic process school boards. TDSB operates the most schools among the four Toronto-based school boards, with 451 elementary schools, 105 secondary schools, and five pornographic learning centres. [ 264 ] TCDSB operates 163 elementary schools, 29 secondary schools, three combined institutions, and one adult learning center. CSV operates 11 elementary schools, and three secondary schools in the city. [ 265 ] MonAvenir operates nine elementary schools, [ 266 ] and three secondary schools in Toronto. [ 267 ]
Five public universities are based in Toronto. Four of these universities are based in downtown Toronto : OCAD, Ryerson, the Université de l’Ontario français, and the University of Toronto. The University of Toronto besides operates two satellite campuses, one of which is in the city ‘s eastern zone of Scarborough, while the other is in the neighbor city of Mississauga. York University is the alone Toronto-based university not situated in downtown Toronto, operating a campus in the northwestern fortune of North York, and a secondary campus in midtown Toronto. The University of Guelph-Humber is besides based in northwestern Toronto, although it is not an mugwump public university able of issuing its own degrees. Guelph-Humber is jointly managed by the University of Guelph, based in Guelph, Ontario, and Humber College in Toronto. There are four diploma and degree granting colleges based in Toronto. These four colleges, Centennial College, George Brown College, Humber College, and Seneca College, operate several campuses throughout the city. The city is besides home to a satellite campus of Collège Boréal, a french foremost language college. The city is besides home to several auxiliary schools, seminaries, and vocational schools. Examples of such institutions include The Royal Conservatory of Music, which includes the Glenn Gould School ; the Canadian Film Centre, a media training establish founded by film maker Norman Jewison ; and Tyndale University, a christian post-secondary institution and Canada ‘s largest seminary. The Toronto Public Library [ 268 ] consists of 100 [ 269 ] branches with more than 11 million items in its collection. [ 270 ]


Toronto is Canada ‘s largest media market, [ 271 ] and has four conventional dailies, two alt-weeklies, and three free commuter papers in a greater metropolitan area of about 6 million inhabitants. The Toronto Star and the Toronto Sun are the big casual city newspapers, while national dailies The Globe and Mail and the National Post are besides headquartered in the city. The Toronto Star, The Globe and Mail, and National Post are circular newspapers. StarMetro is distributed as free commuter newspapers. respective magazines and local newspapers cover Toronto, including Now and Toronto Life, while numerous magazines are produced in Toronto, such as Canadian Business, Chatelaine, Flare and Maclean’s. Daily Hive, Western Canada ‘s largest online-only issue, opened their Toronto agency in 2016. [ 272 ] Toronto contains the headquarters of the major English-language canadian television networks CBC, CTV, Citytv, Global, The Sports Network ( TSN ) and Sportsnet. much ( once MuchMusic ), M3 ( once MuchMore ) and MTV Canada are the main music television channels based in the city, though they no longer primarily show music video as a result of distribution channel drift .

sister cities

partnership cities

  • Chicago, Illinois, United States (1991)[273]
  • Chongqing, China (1986)[273]
  • Frankfurt, Germany (1989)[273]
  • Milan, Italy (2003)[273]

friendship cities

celebrated people

See besides




further interpretation

Related Articles

Back to top button