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suburb of Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Location map of Penrith based on NASA satellite images
Reading: Penrith, New South Wales – Wikipedia
Penrith is a city in New South Wales, Australia, located in Greater Western Sydney, 55 kilometres ( 31 nautical mile ) west of the Sydney cardinal occupation district on the banks of the Nepean River, on the outskirts of the Cumberland Plain. Its elevation is 32 metres ( 105 foot ). Penrith is on Dharug Aboriginal Country and then is the administrative center of the local politics area of the City of Penrith. The Geographical Names Board of New South Wales acknowledges Penrith as one of only four cities within the Greater Sydney metropolitan sphere. [ 2 ]
history [edit ]
autochthonal colonization [edit ]
prior to the arrival of the Europeans, the Penrith area was home to the Mulgoa tribe of the Darug people. They lived in makeshift huts called gunyahs, hunted native animals such as kangaroos, fished in the Nepean River, and gathered local fruits and vegetables such as yams. They lived under an elaborate system of jurisprudence which had its origins in the Dreamtime. Most of the Mulgoa were killed by smallpox or galgala soon after the arrival of the First Fleet in 1788. early british explorers such as Watkin Tench described them as friendly, saying, “ they bade us adieu, in unabated friendship and good liquid body substance ”. [ 3 ]
european exploration [edit ]
The record history of Penrith began on 26 June 1789. eighteen months after the landing of the First Fleet, an exploring party led by Captain Watkin Tench set out to promote discoveries made by Governor Arthur Phillip earlier in the calendar month. In the day hours of 27 June, Tench and his party discovered the broad sweep of the Nepean River. Tench ‘s party became the foremost Europeans to see the locate of what is immediately the City of Penrith. tench later wrote ‘ we found ourselves on the banks of a river, closely a broad as the Thames at Putney and obviously of big depth ’. Phillip later named the river after Evan Nepean, the under-secretary of country in the Home Office, who had been largely creditworthy for the arrangement of the First Fleet. From this point, european settlement began in businesslike, first on the Hawkesbury River, and belated southward up the Nepean .
european colonization [edit ]
Governor Phillip Gidley King began granting farming in the area to settlers in 1804 with Captain Daniel Woodriff ‘s 1,000 acres ( 4.0 km2 ) on the banks of the river the beginning kingdom grant in the area. The first government build up in the zone was the military terminal built ( at the present Penrith police station ) by William Cox, in mid-1815 near the new Road ( Great Western Road ) on unassigned Crown domain, set well back from the river. It represented the formalization of law and order in the district. Its placement seems to have been a hardheaded decision by Cox, placing it on flood-free Crown state on the new road to Parramatta, barely east of Woodriff ‘s Rodley Farm. Governor Lachlan Macquarie paid Cox £200 for ‘ erecting a Depot for Provisions, Guard House, erecting necessary Enclosures for cattle and Garden Ground, Frame for a Well … on the new near Emu Ford ’. At this time, Emu Ford was one of the few vicinity names that would indicate the terminal ‘s position. In 1816 Cox mentioned the lockup at ‘ Penryhn ’, among a list of expenses. There appears little doubt that he was referring to the storehouse that was late referred to as Penrith. The diagnose for the fresh terminal, Penrhyn, may have plainly been misinterpreted by others. Penrhyn was possibly named after the First Fleet ship that carried women convicts, the Lady Penrhyn. There is no historical evidence to prove Macquarie ‘s hand in naming the terminal, particularly considering he much endowed and recorded benefactors with that favor. Furthermore, Macquarie would have ensured that a plan of the town would have been drawn up. No documentary evidence has shed any light on Macquarie ‘s reason for the placement of this terminal and its connection with his vision for a township at Castlereagh. [ 4 ] What is clear is that the origin of the name, Penrith is steeped in mystery. Penrith was possibly named after Penrith in Cumbria by person who knew the old town and who noted geographic similarities. By 1819, the name Penrith was in use with its first reference book in the Sydney Gazette on 8 December 1821 appointing John Proctor as custodian of the new imprison and court house. The locking at Penrith placed government law and order in the kernel of the Evan district. This group of buildings became the item of touch for local administration for anything ranging from issuing publican ‘s licences, holding inquests and church services. Although a magistrate had been appointed to Castlereagh in 1811, the Penrith lockup increased in importance with its forwarding to a woo firm in 1817. A bench of magistrates was appointed : Sir John Jamison, the Reverend Henry Fulton, John McHenry and a military officer from the regiment stationed there. In 1814, William Cox constructed a road across the Blue Mountains which passed through Woodriff ‘s land at Penrith. initial settlement in the area was unintentional but substantial enough for a courthouse to be established in 1817. [ 5 ] The post office was established in 1828, the Anglican church, St Stephens, was opened and consecrated 16 July 1839 [ 6 ] followed by the Catholic Church, St Nicholas of Myra, in 1850. Two other outstanding Penrith pioneers were Irish-born Thomas Jamison ( 1752/53-1811 ), a penis of the First Fleet and surgeon-general of New South Wales ( after whom Jamisontown is named ), and his son, the landowner, doctor and constitutional reformer Sir John Jamison ( 1776–1844 ). In 1824, Sir John erected the colony ‘s finest georgian sign of the zodiac, Regentville House, near Penrith, on a ridge overlooking the Nepean River. Sir John established an impressive agricultural estate of the realm at Regentville and became a Member of the New South Wales Legislative Council. His dangerous can be seen in St Stephen ‘s cemetery. Regentville House burned down in 1868 but most of its stonework was salvaged and used for building projects in and around Penrith. The first bridge, financed by local occupation James Tobias ( Toby ) Ryan [ 7 ] was opened over the Nepean in 1856 and was washed away the surveil year in a deluge. The railroad track line was extended to Penrith in 1863, a school was established in 1865 and in 1871 the area became a municipality. It formally became a city in 1959. [ 5 ]
commercial sphere [edit ]
Penrith is one of the major commercial centres in Greater Western Sydney. The suburb contains two shopping centres .
- Westfield Penrith, (formerly Penrith Plaza) is the largest shopping centre in the suburb, located within a main commercial centre.
- Nepean Village (formerly Nepean Square) is a single level shopping centre located in Penrith.
ecstasy [edit ]
A Sydney Trains city bound military service at Penrith Station Penrith railroad track station is a major railroad track station on the North Shore & Western Line of the Sydney Trains network. It has frequent services to and from the City and is besides a hold on on the intercity Blue Mountains Line. Penrith railway station is served by a bus exchange and by the Nightride Bus route 70. [ 10 ] Penrith can be accessed from St. Marys and Mount Druitt via the Great western Highway. Access from foster east is best obtained by the M4 Western Motorway using either The Northern Road or Mulgoa Road exits. If travelling east from the Blue Mountains, access is best obtained by the Great western Highway. access from the south can be obtained by The Northern Road and Mulgoa Road, north from Castlereagh road or Richmond road, or from north and south via Westlink M7 and the M4 Western Motorway. The NSW Government announced support for the construction of the M9 in the 2014 department of state budget [ 11 ] [ 12 ] to connect Camden, Penrith and Windsor. The proposed expressway will start from the M5 expressway and run west of the current M7 expressway .
education [edit ]
Penrith Public School and Penrith High School are two public schools in High Street. Jamison High School is in South Penrith. St Nicholas of Myra is a catholic primary school, which is region of Catholic Education, Diocese of Parramatta, is located in Higgins Street. [ 5 ] The Penrith campus of Nepean College of TAFE is located in the center of town on Henry Street. [ 13 ] The Penrith campus of the University of Western Sydney is located in nearby Werrington. [ 14 ] The University of Sydney has a campus near Nepean Hospital in Kingswood, for research into the basic biomedical sciences and educating checkup students at the hospital .
Landmarks and tourist attractions [edit ]
inheritance listings [edit ]
Penrith has a count of heritage-listed sites, including :
other items of concern include :
St Stephen ‘s church
culture [edit ]
Arts [edit ]
The Joan Sutherland Performing Arts Complex is in High Street next to the Council Chambers. Named after opera singer Joan Sutherland, the building was designed by architect Philip Cox and opened in 1990. It incorporates the Penrith Conservatorium of Music and the Q Theatre ( Penrith ), which had been operating in Station Street for 30 years before moving to the complex in 2006. [ 35 ]
fun and refreshment [edit ]
Penrith Stadium is the home of the Penrith Panthers NRL team. Penrith ‘s Junior Rugby League competition is the largest in the populace, which besides incorporates teams from the Blue Mountains, Blacktown and Windsor/Richmond areas. Penrith Stadium was besides family to the Penrith Nepean United FC [ 36 ] soccer club. The team had a 2–1 winnings against Sydney FC in a home game friendly pit in front of 5000 fans on 17 August 2007. There are besides many other sporting associations, including cricket clubs, AFL clubs, Penrith City Outlaws gridiron team, [ 37 ] Panthers Triathlon club, [ 38 ] Penrith Emus Rugby, liquid, and soccer clubs. just west of Cranebrook is Penrith Lakes, a system of flood quarries that are now recreational lakes. One of these lakes hosted the rowing events of the Sydney 2000 Olympics. This facility is rated as a Level One naturally which can be used for international events. [ 39 ] The course itself is fully buoyed and can be modified to accommodate swim and kayaking events. north of the rowing lake is the Penrith Whitewater Stadium, the only pump-powered and artificial white water slalom path in the Southern Hemisphere. [ 40 ] It was built for the Sydney 2000 Olympics, and it continues to host international competitions on a regular basis. Penrith is home to the Elite Fight Gym. A mix martial arts training facility established by UFC combatant James Te-Huna. [ 41 ] In 2013, James te Huna left EFG to establish a rival MMA center in St Marys named Bee Stingz ( located at Valley Fitness ) .
Media [edit ]
Penrith is home to three local anesthetic newspapers : The Western Weekender, Nepean News, and Penrith Press, the latter of which no longer produces a print edition. It is besides home to local anesthetic radio receiver station Vintage FM 87.6 ( 40 ‘s, 50 ‘s & 60 ‘s Music ). The current FM radio place “ the edge ” 96.1 FM evolved from the former ( original ) 2KA station founded by Frank Kelly. In 2001 the Penrith Museum of Printing opened. Its solicitation represents the history of australian relief printing print. [ 42 ]
geography [edit ]
Victoria Bridge over the Nepean River, linking Penrith to Emu Plains Penrith sits on the western edge of the Cumberland Plain, a fairly flat area of western Sydney, extending to Windsor in the union, Parramatta in the east and Thirlmere in the south. The Nepean River forms the westerly limit of the suburb and beyond that, dominating the western skyline, are the Blue Mountains. There is a difference of opinion between Penrith City Council and the Geographical Names Board of New South Wales as to the boundaries of Penrith the suburb. The Board includes in its official description the sphere of Kingswood Park, Lemongrove and North Penrith, which the Council considers disjoined suburbs. [ 5 ] [ 43 ] [ 44 ]
climate [edit ]
Penrith has a humid subtropical climate ( Köppen climate classification : Cfa ) with long, hot summers, meek to cool short winters with cold nights, and pleasant jump and fall. The day temperatures are broadly a few degrees warmer than Sydney ( Observatory Hill ), particularly during spring and summer, when the difference in temperature between Penrith and the Sydney area can be quite pronounce. Night-time temperatures are a few degrees cooler than Sydney on most nights of the year. In extreme cases, there could be a temperature derived function of 10 degrees Celsius in summer, owing to sea breezes, which affect coastal areas much more than areas further from the ocean and do not normally penetrate as far inland as Penrith. Frost occasionally occurs on some winter mornings. The median summer temperature range is 17.9 °C ( 64.2 °F ) to 29.8 °C ( 85.6 °F ) and in the winter 6.2 °C ( 43.2 °F ) to 18.6 °C ( 65.5 °F ). [ 45 ] Mean annual rain in Penrith is 719.2mm, which is significantly less than recorded airless to the slide, ( Sydney Observatory Hill ‘s beggarly annual rain is 1212.2mm ), [ 46 ] as coastal showers do not penetrate inland. The highest commemorate temperature was 48.9 °C ( 120.02 °F ) on 4 January 2020 ( Penrith was besides the hottest place on worldly concern that day ). [ 47 ] The lowest record temperature was -1.4 °C ( 29.5 °F ) on 12 July 2002. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] Penrith ‘s hot temperatures are exacerbated by a combination of its inland location, urban inflame island effect ( i.e. density of house and lack of trees ) and its military position on the footsteps of the Blue Mountains, which trap hot air. [ 50 ] Penrith ‘s dry, cheery winters are owed to the Great Dividing Range blocking westerly cold fronts, which turn to foehn winds on the roll ‘s leeward side ( that includes all of the Sydney metropolitan area ). [ 51 ]
|Climate data for Penrith|
|Record high °C (°F)||48.9
|Average high °C (°F)||31.2
|Average low °C (°F)||18.7
|Record low °C (°F)||10.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||93.6
|Average precipitation days ( ≥ 1 millimeter )||7.5||7.7||8.1||5.5||4.0||5.8||3.8||3.3||4.6||5.5||7.7||7.0||70.5|
|Average afternoon relative humidity (%)||47||53||52||49||52||55||50||41||40||41||46||45||48|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||260.4||210.0||232.5||240.0||248.0||180.0||257.3||263.5||264.0||257.3||294.0||303.8||3,010.8|
|Source 1: Bureau of Meteorology (temperatures, humidity and rainfall)|
|Source 2: Weather-Atlas (sunshine hours)|
population [edit ]
Demographics [edit ]
Apartments close to Penrith station In the 2016 census, Penrith recorded a population of 13,295 people. Of these : [ 1 ]
- Age distribution: The median age was 37 years (compared to the national median of 38). Children aged under 15 years made up 16.4% of the population (national average is 18.7%) and people aged 65 years and over made up 17.5% of the population (national average is 15.8%).
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 5.0% of the population of Penrith.
- Ethnic diversity : 68.2% of people were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 66.7%; the next most common countries of birth were England 3.8%, India 2.5%, New Zealand 1.9%, Philippines 1.7% and China 1.4%. 75.6% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 1.4%, Tagalog 1.0% and Arabic 0.9%.
- Religion : The most common responses for religion were No Religion 26.1%, Catholic 24.9% and Anglican 18.1%.
- Finances: The median household weekly income was $1,142, compared to the national median of $1,438. This difference is also reflected in real estate, with the median mortgage payment being $1,733 per month, compared to the national median of $1,755.
- Housing: Nearly half (47.2%) of occupied private dwellings were separate houses, 28.5% were semi-detached (row or terrace houses, townhouses etc.) and 23.8% were flats, units or apartments.
noteworthy residents [edit ]
Twin towns – sister cities [edit ]
Penrith is twinned with : [ 58 ]
References [edit ]