Parramatta – Wikipedia

This article is about the Suburb of Sydney. For early uses, see Parramatta ( disambiguation )
suburb of City of Parramatta, New South Wales, Australia
Parramatta ( ) is a suburb and major commercial center [ 7 ] [ 8 ] in Greater Western Sydney, located in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located approximately 24 kilometres ( 15 nautical mile ) west of the Sydney central commercial enterprise district on the banks of the Parramatta River. [ 2 ] Parramatta is the administrative seat of the local government sphere of the City of Parramatta and is frequently regarded as the chief business zone of Greater Western Sydney. Parramatta besides has a long history as a second administrative center in the Sydney metropolitan region, playing horde to a count of department of state government departments [ 9 ] american samoa well as state of matter and union courts. It is much colloquially referred to as “ Parra ”.

Parramatta, founded as a british colonization in 1788, the lapp year as Sydney, is the oldest inland european colonization in Australia and is the economic center of Greater Western Sydney. [ 10 ] Since 2000, government agencies such as the New South Wales Police Force and Sydney Water [ 11 ] have relocated to Parramatta from the center of Sydney .

history [edit ]

native [edit ]

Radiocarbon dating suggests homo activeness occurred in Parramatta from around 30,000 years ago. [ 12 ] The Darug people who lived in the area before european village regarded the area as rich in food from the river and forests. They named the area Baramada or Burramatta ( ‘Parramatta ‘ ) which means Eel ( “ Burra ” ) Place ( “ matta ” ). similar Darug words include Cabramatta ( Grub position ) and Wianamatta ( Mother set ). [ 13 ] early references [ which? ] are derived from the words of Captain Watkin Tench, a white british man with a inadequate understanding of the Darug linguistic process, and are incorrect. [ citation needed ] To this day many eels and other sea creatures are attracted to nutrients that are concentrated where the seawater of Port Jackson meets the fresh water of the Parramatta River. The Parramatta Eels Rugby League baseball club chose their symbol as a resultant role of this phenomenon . view of Parramatta in 1812 “Parramatta from May’s Hill” – Joseph Lycett (c1824) Joseph Lycett ( c1824 ) Parramatta in 1886

european [edit ]

Parramatta was founded in 1788, the like year as Sydney. As such, Parramatta is the moment oldest city in Australia, being only 10 months younger than Sydney. The british Colonists, who had arrived in January 1788 on the First Fleet at Sydney Cove, had lone enough food to support themselves for a short time and the land around Sydney Cove proved excessively inadequate to grow the sum of food that 1,000 convicts, soldiers and administrators needed to survive. During 1788, Governor Arthur Phillip had reconnoitred respective places before choosing Parramatta as the most likely place for a successful large farm. [ 14 ] Parramatta was the furthest navigable point inland on the Parramatta River ( i.e. furthest from the slender, arenaceous coastal soil ) and besides the charge at which the river became freshwater and consequently useful for farming. On Sunday 2 November 1788, Governor Phillip took a separation of marines along with a surveyor and, in boats, made his way upriver to a placement that he called The Crescent, a defendable hill curved round a river deflect, now in Parramatta Park. As a settlement developed, Governor Phillip gave it the diagnose “ Rose Hill ” after british politician George Rose. [ 15 ] On 4 June 1791 Phillip changed the name of the township to Parramatta, approximating the term used by the local Aboriginal people. [ 16 ] A neighbor suburb acquired the name “ Rose Hill ”, which today is spelt “ Rosehill “ .
The erstwhile Female Orphan School was one of the first schools in the area In an attempt to deal with the food crisis, Phillip in 1789 granted a convict named James Ruse the land of Experiment Farm at Parramatta on the stipulate that he develop a viable agriculture. There, Ruse became the first european to successfully grow grain in Australia. The Parramatta area was besides the locate of the initiate of the australian wool diligence by John Macarthur ‘s Elizabeth Farm in the 1790s. Philip Gidley King ‘s account of his travel to to Parramatta on 9 April 1790 is one of the earliest descriptions of the area. Walking four miles with Governor Phillip to Prospect, he saw roll grassland interspersed with brilliant trees and a great number of kangaroos and electromagnetic unit. [ 17 ] The Battle of Parramatta, a major battle of the australian frontier wars, occurred in March 1797 where Eora drawing card Pemulwuy led a group of Bidjigal warriors, estimated to be at least 100, in an attack on the town of Parramatta. The local garrison withdrew to their barracks and Peulwuy held the town until he was finally shoot and wounded. A year belated, a government farm at Toongabbie was attacked by Pemulwuy, who challenged the New South Wales Corps to a fight. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] Governor Arthur Phillip built a small sign of the zodiac for himself on the mound of The Crescent. In 1799 this was replaced by a larger residence which, substantially improved by Governor Lachlan Macquarie from 1815 to 1818, has survived to the introduce day, making it the oldest survive Government House anywhere in Australia. It was used as a withdraw by Governors until the 1850s, with one Governor ( Governor Brisbane ) making it his star home for a inadequate period in the 1820s. In 1803, another celebrated incident occurred in Parramatta, involving a convicted condemnable named Joseph Samuel, in the first place from England. Samuel was convicted of murder and sentenced to death by hanging, but the rope broke. In the second attack, the noose slipped off his neck. In the third try, the new r-2 broke. Governor King was summoned and pardoned Samuel, as the incident appeared to him to be divine treatment. [ 20 ] In 1814, Macquarie opened a school for Aboriginal children at Parramatta as part of a policy of improving relations between Aboriginal and european communities. This educate was late relocated to “ Black Town ”. [ 21 ]

climate [edit ]

Parramatta has a humid subtropical climate ( Köppen climate classification : Cfa ) with mild to cool, reasonably brusque winters and warm to normally hot summers, aboard moderate rain spread throughout the class. Summer maximal temperatures are quite varying, frequently reaching above 35 °C ( 95 °F ), on average 13.1 days in the summer season, and sometimes remaining in the first gear 20s, specially after a cold front or a sea breeze, such as the south wind buster. Northwesterlies can occasionally bring hot winds from the desert that can raise temperatures higher than 40 °C ( 104 °F ) by and large from November to February, and sometimes above 44 °C ( 111 °F ) in January and early February during severe heatwaves. The record highest temperature ( since 1967 ) was 47.0 °C ( 116.6 °F ) on 4 January 2020. Parramatta is warmer than Sydney CBD in the summer due to the urban heat island effect and its inland location. In extreme cases though, it can be 5–10 °C ( 9–18 °F ) warmer than Sydney, particularly when ocean breezes do not penetrate inland on hot summer and bounce days. For example, on 28 November 2009, the city reached 29.3 °C ( 84.7 °F ), [ 22 ] while Parramatta reached 39.0 °C ( 102.2 °F ), [ 23 ] about 10 °C ( 18 °F ) higher. Rainfall is slightly higher during the beginning three months of the year because the anticlockwise-rotating subtropical high is to the south of the country, thereby allowing damp easterlies from the Tasman Sea to penetrate the city. [ 24 ] [ 25 ] The second one-half of the year tends to be dry ( late winter/spring ) since the subtropical high is to the union of the city, therefore permitting dry westerlies from the inside to dominate. [ 26 ] Drier winters are besides owed to its military position on the leeward slope of the Great Dividing Range, which block westerly cold fronts ( that are more common in late winter ) and thus would become fohn winds, whereby allowing adequate come of cheery days and relatively depleted precipitation in that period. [ 27 ] Thunderstorms are coarse in the months from early jump to early fall, occasionally quite severe thunderstorms can occur. Snow is about unknown, having been recorded only in 1836 and 1896 [ 28 ] Parrammatta gets 106.6 days of clear skies per annum. Depending on the fart direction, summer weather may be humid or dry, though the humidity is by and large in the comfortable scope, with the late summer/autumn menstruation having a higher average humidity than late winter/early spring .

Climate data for Parramatta North (1991–2020 averages, 1967–present extremes)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 47.0
Average high °C (°F) 29.1
Average low °C (°F) 17.9
Record low °C (°F) 10.1
Average precipitation mm (inches) 89.9
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 1 millimeter ) 8.6 9.0 9.9 7.0 6.3 7.9 6.0 4.8 5.7 7.0 8.7 8.3 89.2
Average afternoon relative humidity (%) 56 59 58 56 59 58 55 45 46 50 54 55 54
Average dew point °C (°F) 16.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 254.2 201.6 229.4 234.0 238.7 174.0 248.0 260.4 258.0 254.2 282.0 291.4 2,925.9
Source 1: Bureau of Meteorology[29]
Source 2: Weather-Atlas (sunshine) [30]

commercial area [edit ]

Church Street Church Street is home to many shops and restaurants. The northerly end of Church Street, close to Lennox Bridge, features al fresco dining with a diverse rate of cuisines. Immediately south of the CBD Church Street is known across Sydney as ‘Auto Alley ‘ for the many cable car dealerships lining both sides of the street a far as the M4 Motorway. [ 31 ]
4 Parramatta Square Since 2000, Parramatta has seen the consolidation of its function as a government concentrate, with the move of agencies such as the New South Wales Police Force Headquarters and the Sydney Water Corporation [ 11 ] from Sydney CBD. At the same time, major construction work occurred around the railway station with the expansion of Westfield Shoppingtown and the universe of a new transmit exchange. The western separate of the Parramatta CBD is known as the Parramatta Justice Precinct and houses the corporate headquarter of the New South Wales Department of Attorney General and Justice. early legal offices include the Children ‘s Court of New South Wales and the Sydney West Trial Courts, Legal Aid Commission of NSW, Office of Trustee and Guardian ( once the Office of the Protective Commissioner ), NSW Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions, adenine well as a ramify of the Family Court. Nearby on Marsden Street is the Parramatta Courthouse and the Drug Court of New South Wales. The Garfield Barwick Commonwealth Law Courts Building ( named in honor of Sir Garfield Barwick ), houses courts of the Federal Magistrates Court and the Family Court of Australia. The naval special warfare Government has besides announced plans to secure up to 45,000m2 of newly A-grade leased office space in Parramatta to relocate a further 4,000 workers from the Sydney CBD. [ 32 ]
Eclipse Tower Parramatta Square ( previously known as Civic Place ) is a proposed civic precinct located in the heart of the city, adjacent to Parramatta Town Hall. The proposal includes a renovation of the Parramatta Civic Centre, a culture and arts concentrate and a new plaza. The designs of the beginning two projects, a 65-storey residential skyscraper and an office build were announced on 20 July 2012. [ 33 ] Parramatta Square will besides become home to 3,000 National Australia Bank employees to be relocated from the Sydney CBD by 2020. [ 34 ] Centenary Square, once known as Centenary Plaza, was created in 1975 when the then Parramatta City Council closed a section of the main street to traffic to create a pedestrian plaza. It features an 1888 Centennial Memorial Fountain and adjoins the 1883 Parramatta Town Hall and St John ‘s Cathedral. [ 35 ] A hospital known as The Colonial Hospital was established in Parramatta in 1818. [ 36 ] This then became Parramatta District Hospital. Jeffery House was built in the 1940s. With the construction of the nearby Westmead Hospital building complex public hospital services in Parramatta were reduced but after renovation Jeffery House again provides clinical health services. Nearby, Brislington House has had a hanker history with health services. It is the oldest colonial building in Parramatta, dating to 1821. [ 37 ] It became a doctors mansion before being incorporated into the Parramatta Hospital in 1949. Parramatta is a major business and commercial center, and home to Westfield Parramatta, the tenth largest shop center in Australia. [ 38 ] Parramatta is besides the major transport hub for western Sydney, servicing trains and buses, equally well as having a ferry pier and future easy rail and metro services. Major upgrades have occurred around Parramatta railway place with the initiation of a new transportation substitute, and the ongoing exploitation of the Parramatta Square local politics precinct. [ 39 ]

Places of worship [edit ]

Church Street takes its identify from St John ‘s Cathedral ( Anglican ), which was built in 1802 and is the oldest church in Parramatta. While the present build is not the first on the site, the towers were built during the prison term of Governor Macquarie, and were based on those of the church at Reculver, England, at the trace of his wife, Elizabeth. [ 40 ] The historic St John ‘s Cemetery is located nearby on O’Connell Street. [ 41 ]
congregational Church ( 1871 ) St Patrick ‘s Cathedral ( Roman Catholic ) is one of the oldest catholic churches in Australia. structure commenced in 1836, but it was n’t formally complete until 1837. In 1854 a new church was commissioned, although the tugboat was not completed until 1880, with the steeple following in 1883. [ 42 ] It was built on the locate to meet the needs of a growing congregation. It was destroyed by fire in 1996, with only the stone walls remaining. On 29 November 2003, the new St Patrick ‘s Cathedral was dedicated. [ 43 ] The historic St Patrick ‘s Cemetery is located in North Parramatta. The Uniting Church is represented by Leigh Memorial Church. [ 44 ] Parramatta Salvation Army is one of the oldest active salvation Army Corps in Australia. Parramatta is besides home to the Parramatta and Districts Synagogue, which services the Jewish community of western Sydney. [ 45 ] The greek Orthodox Parish and Community of St Ioannis ( St John The Frontrunner ) Greek Orthodox Church was established in Parramatta in May 1960 under the cosmopolitan jurisdiction of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia to serve the predominantly emigrating greek population of Greater Western Sydney. primitively, the liturgies were held in the hall of St John ‘s Ambulance Brigade in Harris Park until the completion of the church service in December 1966 located in Hassall Street Parramatta. The parish sold this property in 2014 and is now located at the recess of George and Purchase Streets. [ 46 ] The Parish Community of St Ioannis continues to serve over 5,000 greek parishioners. [ 47 ] A Buddhist temple is located in Cowper Street, Parramatta. [ 48 ] Parramatta ‘s Mosque is in an apartment build up on Marsden Street, Parrmatta. [ 49 ] The district is served by BAPS Swaminarayan Hindu synagogue located on Eleanor St, Rosehill, [ 50 ] and a Murugan Hindu temple in Mays Hill, off Great western Highway. [ 51 ]

Parks [edit ]

Parramatta Park is a big park adjacent to Western Sydney Stadium that is a democratic venue for walk-to, ramble on and bicycle ride. It was once the Governor ‘s Domain, being land set aside for the Governor to supply his farming needs, until it was gazetted as a public park in 1858. [ 52 ] As the Governor ‘s Domain, the grounds were well larger than the current 85 hectare Parramatta Park, extending from Parramatta Road in the south as discernible by a little gatehouse adjacent to Parramatta High School. For a clock time Parramatta Park housed a menagerie [ 53 ] until 1951 when the animals were transferred to Taronga Zoo. Parramatta is known as the ‘River City ‘ as the Parramatta River flows through the Parramatta CBD. [ 54 ] Its foreshore features a resort area, seat, picnic tables and pathways that are increasingly popular with residents, visitors and CBD workers. [ 55 ] prince Alfred Square is a victorian era parking lot located within the CBD on the northern side of the Parramatta River. It is one of the oldest public parks in New South Wales with trees dating from circa 1869. Prior to being a public ballpark, it was the locate of Parramatta ‘s second jail from 1804 until 1841 and the first female factory in Australia between 1804 and 1821 .

tape drive [edit ]

In contrast to the high grade of car colony throughout Sydney, a greater proportion of Parramatta ‘s workers travelled to work on public transportation ( 45.2 % ) than by car ( 36.2 % ) in 2016. [ 56 ]

Trains [edit ]

Parramatta railway station is a major transport exchange on the Sydney rail network. It is served by Sydney Trains ‘ Cumberland Line, Inner West & Leppington Line and North Shore & Western Line. [ 57 ] NSW TrainLink operate intercity services on the Blue Mountains Line american samoa well as services to rural New South Wales. The station was primitively opened in 1855, located in what is nowadays Granville, and known as Parramatta Junction. The place was moved to its current placement and opened on 4 July 1860, five years after the beginning railroad track agate line in Sydney was opened, running from Sydney to Parramatta Junction. [ 58 ] The current station was upgraded, with work beginning in belated 2003 and the newly substitute open on 19 February 2006. [ 59 ] The original station placid exists within the over-all structure as part of Platform 4 .

bus [edit ]

Parramatta is besides serviced by a major bus interchange located on the south easterly side of the railroad track station. The interchange is served by buses utilising the North West T-Way to Rouse Hill and the Liverpool-Parramatta T-Way to Liverpool. Parramatta is besides serviced by two high-frequency Metrobus services :

  • M91 – Parramatta to Hurstville via Granville, Bankstown and Peakhurst (Transdev NSW)
  • M92 – Parramatta to Sutherland via Lidcombe, Bankstown and Padstow (Transdev NSW)

A free busbar Route 900 is operated by Transdev NSW in junction with the country government. Route 900 circles Parramatta CBD. [ 60 ] A release busbar besides links Parramatta Stadium to Parramatta railway station during major sporting events .
Charles Street Ferry Wharf

ferry [edit ]

The Parramatta ferry wharf is at the Charles Street Weir, which divides the tidal seawater from the fresh water of the upper river, on the easterly boundary of the Central Business District. The wharf is the westernmost address of Sydney Ferries ‘ Parramatta River ferry services. [ 61 ]

Light railing [edit ]

The Parramatta Light Rail project was announced in 2015. Lines originating from Carlingford and Olympic Park via Wentworth Point will form a compound route at Rydalmere or Camellia and elapse through Parramatta before terminating at Westmead. [ 62 ] [ 63 ] The cable will open in 2023 .

Metro [edit ]

Sydney Metro West is a plan metro line between the Sydney central business zone and Westmead. The line was announced in 2016 and would include a place at Parramatta. [ 64 ]

road [edit ]

Parramatta Road has always been an important thoroughfare for Sydney from its earliest days. From Parramatta the major western road for the submit is the bang-up western Highway. The M4 Western Motorway, running twin to the Great Western Highway has taken much of the traffic aside from these roads, with entrance and exit ramps close to Parramatta. James Ruse Drive serves as a partial ring-road circling around the easterly character of Parramatta to join with the Cumberland Highway to the north west of the city. The main north-south route through Parramatta is Church Street. To the north it becomes Windsor Road, and to the south it becomes Woodville Road .

Demographics [edit ]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
2001 17,982 —    
2006 18,448 +2.6%
2011 19,745 +7.0%
2016 25,798 +30.7%

According to the 2016 census conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the suburb of Parramatta had a population of 25,798. Of these : [ 1 ]

Ethnic diversity
The most common country of birth in Parramatta is India representing 29.8% of the population, outnumbering Australian born residents at 24.3%. The next most common are China 12.0%, the Philippines 2.2%, South Korea 1.5% and Nepal 1.5%. However, only 6.5% identify their ancestry as Australian; the other common self-identified ancestries were Indian 26.9%, Chinese 16.3%, English 7.7% and Filipino 2.4%. About one quarter (23.5%) of people spoke English at home; other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 11.8%, Hindi 9.8%, Cantonese 4.5%, Tamil 4.4%, Gujarati 4.1% and Arabic 4.1%.
This question is optional in the Census. Of the people who answered it, the most common response was Hinduism 28.5%; the next most common responses were “No Religion” 21.4%, Catholic 12.7%, Unstated 11.5% and Islam 6.2%.
Age distribution
Parramatta has an over-representation of young adults when compared to the country as a whole. Parramatta residents’ median age was 31 years, compared to the national median of 37. Children aged under 15 years made up 16.2% of the population (national average is 19.3%) and people aged 65 years and over made up 6.8% of the population (national average is 14.0%).
The average weekly household income was $1,739, compared to the national average of $1,234.
The majority of dwellings in Parramatta (81.6%) were flats, units or apartments; 10.2% were separate houses, and 6.7% were semi-detached (mostly townhouses). The average household size was 2.6 people.

luminary residents [edit ]

education [edit ]

Parramatta is home to respective primary and secondary schools. Arthur Phillip High School is the oldest public school in the district ( it is in buildings which have been endlessly used as a school since 1875 ), established in 1960 in its own right. Parramatta High School was the first co-ed school in the Sydney metropolitan area established in 1913. Our dame of Mercy College is one of the oldest catholic schools in Australia. Macarthur Girls High School is successor to an earlier school ‘Parramatta Commercial and Household Arts School ‘. Others schools include Parramatta Public School, Parramatta East Public School, Parramatta West Public School, and St Patrick ‘s Primary Parramatta .
respective third education facilities are besides located within Parramatta. A University of New England study center and two westerly Sydney University campuses are situated in the suburb. The westerly Sydney University Parramatta Campus consists of four sites : Parramatta South ( the independent site ), Parramatta North ( including the adjacent UWS Village, the Parramatta City campus located at 100 George Street and the Flagship Parramatta City Campus located at One Parramatta Square. Parramatta South campus occupies the site of the historic Female Orphan School. [ 66 ] Alphacrucis College is a national vocational and higher education college is besides located in the suburb. The University of Sydney has besides announced that it intends to establish a new campus in Parramatta. [ 67 ]

Media [edit ]

The Parramatta Advertiser is the local newspaper serving Parramatta and surrounding suburbs. On 16 March 2020, the australian Broadcasting Corporation opened a new western Sydney newsroom in Horwood Place at Parramatta incorporating space for 12 staff and news program output equipment with the capacitance to broadcast live radio programs. [ 68 ] According to the ABC, the open formed part of its strategic goal to improve its presence in out metropolitan areas. [ 68 ] Additionally, the ABC announced on 16 June 2021 its purpose to relocate approximately 300 employees to Parramatta, which is separate of a five-year plan which aims to have 75 % of its contented makers based away from the network ‘s Ultimo headquarters by 2025. [ 69 ] [ 70 ]

culture and mutant [edit ]

diverse events are held on the Parramatta River As the center of the City of Parramatta, vitamin a well as the center and irregular largest clientele zone of Sydney, Parramatta hosts many festivals and events. [ 71 ] Riverside Theatres is a performing arts center located on the northerly bank of Parramatta River. The city hosts the adopt events :

  • January – Sydney Festival and Australia Day[72]
  • February – Lunar New Year and Tropfest[73]
  • April – Anzac Day
  • July – Winterlight and Burramatta Day (Naidoc)
  • October – Parramasala and Parramatta Lanes[74]
  • November – Loy Krathong, Christmas in Parramatta and Foundation Day
  • December – New Year’s Eve

Parramatta Park contains Old Government House and therefore Parramatta was once the capital of the colony of New South Wales until Governors returned to residing in Sydney in 1846. [ 75 ] Another feature is the natural amphitheater located on one of the bends of the river, named by Governor Philip as “ the Crescent ”, which is used to stage concerts. It is home to the Dairy Cottage, built from 1798 to 1805, in the first place a single-room bungalow and is one of the earliest outlive cottages in Australia. The remains of Governor Brisbane ‘s private astronomic observatory, constructed in 1822, are visible. Astronomers who worked at the lookout, discovering thousands of new stars and deep flip objects, include James Dunlop and Carl Rümker. In 1822, the architect S. L. Harris designed the Bath House for Governor Brisbane and built it in 1823. Water was pumped to the build through lead pipes from the river. In 1886, it was converted into a pavilion. [ 76 ]

cultural events [edit ]

  • The Rosehill Race Course holds various race meets throughout the year, including: Derby Day, Golden Rose Day, and Rosehill Gardens Race Day.
  • The Parramatta Farmers Markets[77] occurs every Friday, and has local produce.

Sporting teams [edit ]

Parramatta is the home of several professional sports teams. These teams include the Parramatta Eels of the National Rugby League and Western Sydney Wanderers of the A-League. Both teams once played matches at Parramatta Stadium that has since been demolished, and replaced with the 30,000-seat Western Sydney Stadium. [ 78 ] Parramatta Stadium was besides home to the now dissolved Sydney Wave of the former Australian Baseball League and Parramatta Power of the early National Soccer League. The newly built Bankwest stadium opened its gates for the community on 14 April 2019 with free entry for all fans. Located on O ’ Connell Street, the stadium is in proximity of the Parramatta CBD. The afford sporting event was the 2019 Round 6 NRL brush between western Sydney rivals the Parramatta Eels and Wests Tigers on Easter Monday 22 April. The Eels won the pit by a score of 51-6. It is being predicted that the new stadium will boost western Sydney economy by contributing millions of dollars to it. [ 79 ]

Events [edit ]

Duran Duran films “ Union of the Snake ” television with Russell Mulcahy, in Parramatta -using 35mm film .

inheritance listings [edit ]

Parramatta has a total of heritage-listed sites, including :

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

Dictionary of Sydney entries [edit ]



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