This article is about the artistic music genre. For the mental bodily process, see Fantasy ( psychology ). For early uses, see Fantasy ( disambiguation ) “ illusion fabrication ” redirects here. For the 1950 cartridge holder, see Fantasy Fiction. For the 1953 magazine known as Fantasy Fiction for part of its run, see Fantasy Magazine ( 1953 )
Fantasy is a writing style of bad fiction involving charming elements, typically set in a fictional universe and sometimes inspired by mythology and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which then became fantasy literature and drama. From the twentieth century, it has expanded further into versatile media, including film, television, graphic novels, manga, animations and television games.
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Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and repugnance by the respective absence of scientific or ghastly themes, although these genres overlap. In democratic culture, the fantasy genre predominantly features settings that emulate Earth, but with a sense of otherness. [ 1 ] In its broadest sense, however, fantasy consists of works by many writers, artists, filmmakers, and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many late and democratic works .
Traits [edit ]
Most fantasy uses magic or other supernatural elements as a chief plot element, composition, or setting. Magic, charming practitioners ( sorcerers, witches and thus on ) and charming creatures are common in many of these worlds. An identify trait of fantasy is the writer ‘s use of narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent. [ 2 ] This differs from naturalistic fiction in that realistic fabrication has to attend to the history and natural laws of world, where fantasy does not. In writing fantasy the author uses worldbuilding to create characters, situations, and settings that may not be possible in reality. many fantasy authors use real-world folklore and mythology as inspiration ; [ 3 ] and although another defining characteristic of the illusion genre is the inclusion body of supernatural elements, such as charming, [ 4 ] this does not have to be the case. Fantasy has frequently been compared to science fiction and repugnance because they are the major categories of bad fabrication. Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements. A skill fabrication narrative is improbable, though apparently possible through coherent scientific or technical extrapolation, where fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. [ 2 ] Authors have to rely on the readers ‘ suspension of unbelief, an acceptance of the incredible or impossible for the sake of use, in arrange to write effective fantasies. Despite both genres ‘ heavy reliance on the supernatural, fantasy and horror are distinct from one another. Horror chiefly evokes reverence through the protagonists ‘ weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. [ 5 ]
history [edit ]
The Violet Fairy Book (1906) Another exemplification from ( 1906 )
early history [edit ]
Elements of the supernatural and the antic were a contribution of literature from its begin. illusion elements occur throughout the ancient akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh. [ 6 ] The ancient babylonian universe epic poem, the Enûma Eliš, in which the idol Marduk slays the goddess Tiamat, [ 7 ] contains the subject of a cosmic struggle between good and evil, which is characteristic of the modern fantasy genre. [ 7 ] Genres of quixotic and illusion literature existed in ancient Egypt. [ 8 ] The Tales of the Court of King Khufu, which is preserved in the Westcar Papyrus and was probably written in the middle of the second one-half of the eighteenth hundred BC, preserves a mix of stories with elements of historical fiction, illusion, and sarcasm. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] egyptian funerary text preserve fabulous tales, [ 8 ] the most significant of which are the myths of Osiris and his son Horus. [ 8 ] Myth with fantastic elements intended for adults were a major genre of ancient greek literature. [ 11 ] The comedies of Aristophanes are filled with fantastic elements, [ 12 ] particularly his play The Birds, [ 12 ] in which an athenian man builds a city in the cloud with the birds and challenges Zeus ‘s authority. [ 12 ] Ovid ‘s Metamorphoses and Apuleius ‘s The Golden Ass are both works that influenced the development of the fantasy music genre [ 12 ] by taking mythic elements and weaving them into personal accounts. [ 12 ] Both works involve complex narratives in which humans beings are transformed into animals or inanimate objects. [ 12 ] Platonic teachings and early Christian theology are major influences on the modern fantasy genre. [ 12 ] Plato used allegories to convey many of his teachings, [ 12 ] and early on christian writers interpreted both the Old and New Testaments as employing parables to relay apparitional truths. [ 12 ] This ability to find meaning in a floor that is not literally genuine became the basis that allowed the mod fantasy genre to develop. [ 12 ] The most well known fabrication from the Islamic world is One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights), which is a compilation of many ancient and medieval folk music tales. respective characters from this epic have become cultural icons in western culture, such as Aladdin, Sinbad and Ali Baba. [ 13 ] Hindu mythology was an evolution of the earlier Vedic mythology and had many more antic stories and characters, particularly in the indian epics. The Panchatantra ( Fables of Bidpai ), for exemplar, used respective animal fables and charming tales to illustrate the central amerind principles of political skill. chinese traditions have been peculiarly influential in the vein of illusion known as Chinoiserie, including such writers as Ernest Bramah and Barry Hughart. [ 13 ] Beowulf is among the best know of the Old English tales in the English speaking world, and has had deep determine on the fantasy music genre ; several fantasy works have retold the fib, such as John Gardner ‘s Grendel. [ 14 ] Norse mythology, as found in the Elder Edda and the Younger Edda, includes such figures as Odin and his fellow Aesir, and dwarves, elves, dragons, and giants. [ 15 ] These elements have been directly imported into assorted fantasy works. The discriminate folklore of Ireland, Wales, and Scotland has sometimes been used randomly for “ celtic ” fantasy, sometimes with great effect ; other writers have specified the use of a one source. [ 16 ] The Welsh tradition has been peculiarly influential, ascribable to its connection to King Arthur and its solicitation in a single work, the epic Mabinogion. [ 16 ] There are many works where the limit between illusion and other works is not clear ; the question of whether the writers believed in the possibilities of the marvels in A Midsummer Night’s Dream or Sir Gawain and the Green Knight makes it unmanageable to distinguish when illusion, in its advanced common sense, first base began. [ 17 ]
Modern fantasy [edit ]
Although pre-dated by John Ruskin ‘s The King of the Golden River ( 1841 ), the history of modern illusion literature is normally said to begin with George MacDonald, the scottish writer of such novels as The Princess and the Goblin and Phantastes ( 1858 ), the latter of which is widely considered to be the first illusion novel always written for adults. MacDonald was a major influence on both J. R. R. Tolkien and C. S. Lewis. The other major fantasy author of this era was William Morris, an english poet who wrote several novels in the latter character of the century, including The Well at the World’s End. Despite MacDonald ‘s future charm with At the Back of the North Wind ( 1871 ), Morris ‘s popularity with his contemporaries, and H. G. Wells ‘s The Wonderful Visit ( 1895 ), it was not until the twentieth century that fantasy fiction began to reach a big audience. Lord Dunsany established the genre ‘s popularity in both the fresh and the short history form. H. Rider Haggard, Rudyard Kipling, and Edgar Rice Burroughs began to write illusion at this time. These authors, along with Abraham Merritt, established what was known as the “ lost world ” subgenre, which was the most popular form of fantasy in the early decades of the twentieth hundred, although several authoritative children ‘s fantasies, such as Peter Pan and The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, were besides published around this clock time. Juvenile illusion was considered more acceptable than fantasy intended for adults, with the effect that writers who wished to write fantasy had to fit their workplace into forms aimed at children. [ 18 ] Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote fantasy in A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys, intended for children, [ 19 ] although works for adults merely verged on illusion. For many years, this and successes such as Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland ( 1865 ), created the circular effect that all fantasy works, even the late The Lord of the Rings, were therefore classified as children ‘s literature. political and social trends can affect a club ‘s reception towards fantasy. In the early twentieth hundred, the New Culture Movement ‘s enthusiasm for Westernization and skill in China compelled them to condemn the antic shenmo music genre of traditional chinese literature. The spells and charming creatures of these novels were viewed as superstitious and backward, products of a feudal society hindering the modernization of China. Stories of the supernatural continued to be denounced once the Communists rose to ability, and mainland China experienced a revival in fantasy only after the cultural Revolution had ended. [ 20 ] Fantasy became a genre of pulp magazines published in the West. In 1923, the first all-fantasy fiction magazine, Weird Tales, was published. many other like magazines finally followed, including The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction ; when it was founded in 1949, the pulp magazine format was at the acme of its popularity, and the magazine was implemental in bringing illusion fiction to a wide audience in both the U.S. and Britain. such magazines were besides implemental in the rise of skill fiction, and it was at this time the two genres began to be associated with each early.
By 1950, “ sword and sorcery “ fabrication had begun to find a wide consultation, with the success of Robert E. Howard ‘s Conan the Barbarian and Fritz Leiber ‘s Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser stories. [ 21 ] however, it was the advent of high fantasy, and most of all J. R. R. Tolkien ‘s The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, which reached new heights of popularity in the deep 1960s, that allowed fantasy to truly enter the mainstream. [ 22 ] Several early series, such as C. S. Lewis ‘s Chronicles of Narnia and Ursula K. Le Guin ‘s Earthsea books, helped cement the genre ‘s popularity. The popularity of the fantasy writing style has continued to increase in the twenty-first century, as evidenced by the best-selling status of J. K. Rowling ‘s Harry Potter series, George R. R. Martin ‘s Song of Ice and Fire serial, Brandon Sanderson ‘s The Stormlight Archive series and Mistborn series, Robert Jordan ‘s The Wheel of Time series, and A. Sapkowski ‘s The Witcher saga .
Media [edit ]
several illusion film adaptations have achieved blockbuster condition, most notably The Lord of the Rings movie trilogy directed by Peter Jackson, and the Harry Potter films, two of the highest-grossing film series in cinematic history. meanwhile, David Benioff and D. B. Weiss would go on to produce the television drama series Game of Thrones for HBO, based on the record series by George R. R. Martin, which has gone on to achieve unprecedented success for the fantasy genre on television receiver. [ citation needed ] Fantasy role-playing games cross several unlike media. Dungeons & Dragons was the first gear tabletop role-playing game and remains the most successful and influential. According to a 1999 survey in the United States, 6 % of 12- to 35-year-olds have played role-playing games. Of those who play regularly, two thirds play D&D. [ 23 ] Products branded Dungeons & Dragons made up over fifty percentage of the RPG products sold in 2005. [ 24 ] The science fantasy role-playing game series Final Fantasy has been an icon of the role-playing video game genre ( as of 2012 it was calm among the top ten best-selling video game franchises ). The first collectible card game, Magic: The Gathering, has a illusion theme and is similarly dominant allele in the industry. [ 25 ]
categorization [edit ]
By root ( subgenres ) [edit ]
Fantasy encompasses numerous subgenres characterized by especial themes or settings, or by an overlap with other literary genres or forms of inquisitive fabrication. They include the follow :
By the function of the fantastic in the narrative [edit ]
In her 2008 book Rhetorics of Fantasy, [ 26 ] Farah Mendlesohn proposes the succeed taxonomy of fantasy, as “ determined by the means by which the fantastic enters the narrate earth ”, [ 27 ] while noting that there are fantasies that fit none of the patterns :
subculture [edit ]
Professionals such as publishers, editors, authors, artists, and scholars within the fantasy genre get together annual at the World Fantasy Convention. The World Fantasy Awards are presented at the convention. The first WFC was held in 1975 and it has occurred every year since. The conventionality is held at a different city each class. additionally, many skill fabrication conventions, such as Florida ‘s FX Show and MegaCon, cater to fantasy and horror fans. Anime conventions, such as Ohayocon or Anime Expo frequently feature showings of fantasy, skill fantasy, and benighted illusion series and films, such as Majutsushi Orphen ( fantasy ), Sailor Moon ( urban fantasy ), Berserk ( darkness fantasy ), and Spirited Away ( fantasy ). many science fiction/fantasy and zanzibar copal conventions besides powerfully feature or provide to one or more of the respective subcultures within the main subcultures, including the cosplay subculture ( in which people make or wear costumes based on existing or self-created characters, sometimes besides acting out skits or plays angstrom well ), the fan fabrication subculture, and the winnow video or AMV subculture, vitamin a well as the big internet subculture devoted to reading and writing prose fabrication or doujinshi in or related to those genres. According to 2013 statistics by the fantasy publisher Tor Books, men outnumber women by 67 % to 33 % among writers of historical, epic or high fantasy. But among writers of urban fantasy or paranormal romance, 57 % are women and 43 % are men. [ 34 ]
analysis [edit ]
Fantasy is studied in a act of disciplines including English and other lyric studies, cultural studies, comparative literature, history and medieval studies. For exercise, Tzvetan Todorov argues that the fantastic is a liminal space. early ferment makes political, historical and literary connections between medievalism and popular culture. [ 35 ]
related genres [edit ]
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
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