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Town in Victoria, Australia
Reading: Ballarat – Wikipedia
Ballarat ( ) [ 3 ] is a city in the Central Highlands of Victoria, Australia. In 2021, Ballarat had a population of 113,183, making it the third-largest city in Victoria. [ 1 ] [ 4 ] Within months of Victoria separating from the colony of New South Wales in 1851, aureate was discovered near Ballarat, sparking the victorian amber rush. Ballarat subsequently became a thriving boomtown that for a time rivalled Melbourne, the capital of Victoria, in terms of wealth and cultural influence. In 1854, following a time period of civil disobedience in Ballarat over gold licenses, local miners launched an armed resurrect against politics forces. Known as the Eureka Rebellion, it led to the introduction of male right to vote in Australia, and as such is interpreted as the origin of australian democracy. The rebellion ‘s symbol, the Eureka Flag, has become a national symbol. It was on display at Ballarat ‘s Museum of australian Democracy at Eureka ( MADE ) from 2013 until MADE closed in 2018. Proclaimed a city in 1871, Ballarat ‘s prosperity, unlike that of many other gold boomtowns, continued until the late nineteenth century, as the city ‘s fields experienced sustained high gold yields for many decades. By the turn of the century, Ballarat ‘s importance relative to Melbourne quickly faded with the slow of aureate origin. It has endured as a major regional concentrate and is the commercial capital and largest city of the Central Highlands, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as a significant tourist destination. Ballarat is known for its history, culture and well-preserved colonial-era inheritance, with much of the city subject to heritage overlays .
history [edit ]
Prehistory and european liquidation [edit ]
The Ballarat region was first base populated by the Wadawurrung people, an autochthonal australian people. [ 5 ] The first Europeans to sight the area were an 1837 party of six by and large scottish squatters from Geelong, led by Somerville Learmonth and Brendan Birch, who were in search of down less affected by the severe drought for their sheep to graze. The party scaled Mount Buninyong ; among them were Somerville ‘s brother Thomas Livingstone Learmonth, William Cross Yuille and Henry Anderson, all three of whom late claimed domain in what is nowadays Ballarat. The Yuille family, scots settlers Archibald Buchanan Yuille and his brother William Cross Yuille, arrived in 1837 and squatted a 10,000-acre ( 4,000 hour angle ) sheep hunt. The first gear houses were built near Woolshed Creek by William Yuille and Anderson ( Sebastopol ), while Yuille erected a hut at Black Swamp ( Lake Wendouree ) in 1838. Outsiders originally knew of the liquidation as Yuille ‘s Station and Yuille ‘s Swamp. Archibald Yuille named the area “ Ballaarat ”. Some claim the name is derived from a local Wathaurong Aboriginal word for the sphere, balla arat. The intend of this word is not certain ; however several translations have been made and it is by and large thought to mean “ resting identify ”. In some dialects, balla means “ deflect elbow ”, which is translated to mean recline or rest and arat meaning “ place ”. [ 6 ] Another claim is that the list derives from Yuille ‘s native Gaelic Baile Ararat ( Town of Ararat ), alluding to the resting place of Noah ‘s Ark. [ citation needed ] The present spell was officially adopted by the City of Ballarat in 1996 .
Gold rush era [edit ]
The first publicize discovery of gold in the region was by Thomas Hiscock on 2 August 1851, in Buninyong to the confederacy. [ 7 ] The rule brought other prospectors to the area and on 19 August 1851, more gold was found at Poverty Point. [ 8 ] Within days, a gold rush began, bringing thousands of prospectors to the Yarrowee Valley, which became known as the Ballarat diggings. Yields were particularly high, with the first prospectors in the area extracting between half an snow leopard [ 9 ] ( which was more than the average engage of the clock ) and up to five ounces of alluvial gold per day. As newsworthiness of the Victorian amber rush reached the earth, Ballarat gained an international reputation as a peculiarly rich goldfield. As a result, a huge inflow of immigrants occurred, including many from Ireland and China, gathering in a collection of prospecting chantey towns around the brook and hills. Within a few months, numerous alluvial runs were established, several deep mining leads began, and the population had swelled to over 1,000 people. [ 10 ] The first post function opened on 1 November 1851, the first to open in a victorian gold-mining colonization. [ 11 ] Parts of the zone were first base surveyed by William Urquhart [ 12 ] vitamin a early on as October 1851. [ 13 ] By 1852 his grid plan and wide streets for domain sales in the newfangled township of West Ballarat, [ 14 ] built upon a tableland of basalt, contrasted markedly with the existing narrow unintentional streets, tents, and gullies of the original East Ballarat colony. The new town ‘s main streets of the time were named in respect of police commissioners and gold commissioners of the clock, with the main street, Sturt Street, named after Evelyn Pitfield Shirley Sturt ; Dana Street named after Henry Dana ; Lydiard Street after his adjunct ; Doveton Street after Francis Crossman Doveton, Ballarat ‘s beginning gold commissioner ; Armstrong after David Armstrong ; and Mair Street after William Mair. [ 15 ] These officials were based at the government camp ( after which nearby Camp Street was named ), which was strategically positioned on an escarpment with an optimum opinion over the zone ‘s diggings. The first newspaper, The Banner, published on 11 September 1853, was one of many to be distributed during the gold-rush period. Print media played a big function in the early on history of the village. [ 16 ] Ballarat attracted a ample count of miners from the californian 1848 gold rush, and some were known as Ballafornians. [ 17 ]
Troopers storm the rebels ‘ concentration camp during the 1854 Eureka Rebellion civil disobedience in Ballarat led to an armed civil rise, the Eureka Rebellion ( colloquially referred to as the “ Eureka Stockade ” ) which took place in Ballarat on 3 December 1854. The event, in which 22 miners were killed, is considered to be a define moment in australian history. The city earned the nickname “ The Golden City ” in the 1850s. [ 18 ] The gold rush population peaked at about 60,000, by and large male diggers, by 1858. [ 19 ] however the early population was largely itinerant. adenine cursorily as the alluvial deposits drew prospectors to Ballarat, the rate of amber extraction fluctuated and, as they were quickly worked dry, many cursorily moved to rush other fields as new findings were announced, particularly Mount Alexander in 1852, Fiery Creek [ 20 ] in 1855, and Ararat in 1857. By 1859, a smaller number of permanent settlers numbering about 23,000, [ 21 ] many of whom had built personal wealth in gold, established a golden economy based around a switch to deep metro gold mining. confidence of the city ‘s early citizens in the weather future of their city is discernible in the plain scale of many of the early public buildings, generous public recreational spaces, and luxury of many of its commercial establishments and individual caparison. A local steam locomotive diligence developed from 1854 with the Phoenix Foundry operating until 1906. [ 22 ] The railway came to the town with the open of the Geelong–Ballarat line in 1862 and Ballarat developed as a major railroad track town. [ 23 ] As the city grew the region ‘s master autochthonal inhabitants were promptly expelled to the fringe and by 1867 few remained. [ 5 ]
Post amber rush [edit ]
The intersection of Lydiard and Sturt streets, c. 1905, shows a bustling city of trams, horses and pedestrians. From the belated 1860s to the early twentieth hundred, Ballarat made a successful transition from a gold rush town to an industrial-age city. The bedraggled tents and timber buildings gradually made way for permanent buildings, many impressive structures of solid pit and brick chiefly built from wealth generated by early mine. prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh visited between 9 and 13 December 1867 and as the first imperial visit, the occasion was met with big ostentation. [ 24 ] The Prince Room was prepared at Craigs Royal Hotel for his stay. [ 25 ] The city ‘s first civil centre—Prince Alfred Hall—erected over the Yarrowee between the two municipalities, was named in his honor during his chew the fat. The by and by attempt by Ballaratian Henry James O’Farrell to assassinate the Prince was met with shock and great repugnance from locals. [ 24 ] Ballarat was proclaimed a city in 1871. Gong Gong dam was built in 1877 to alleviate deluge and to provide a permanent water add. A direct railroad track to Melbourne was completed in December 1889. [ 26 ] Many industries and workshops had been established as a consequence of manufacture and servicing for the deep leave mine diligence .
twentieth century [edit ]
Development of the Ballarat North Workshops was a major enterprise to capitalise on the city ‘s burgeoning function as a railway town and transition from a declining gold mining diligence. local boosterists at the start of the twentieth hundred adopted the dub “ Athens of Australia ”, beginning used to describe Ballarat by the jurist and politician Sir John Madden. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] [ 29 ] [ 30 ] The inaugural electricity provide was completed in 1901, and that year a bluestone power post was built at the corner of Ripon Street and Wendouree Parade with the main drive of electrifying the city ‘s tramline network. [ 31 ] Despite such advancements, mine natural process slowed at this prison term and Ballarat ‘s growth all but stopped, leading to a decades-long period of decline. The Sunshine rail catastrophe in 1908 resulted in the death of dozens of Ballarat residents, [ 32 ] and in August 1909, a bang-up storm lashed the city, resulting in the death of one person and the injury of seven others, vitamin a well as the destruction of numerous homes. [ 33 ] [ 34 ] Ballarat ‘s significant representation in World War I resulted in heavy homo personnel casualty. Around this time, it was overtaken in population by the port city of Geelong, far diminishing its provincial status. [ 35 ] In reception, local lobbyists continually pushed the victorian government for decentralization, the greatest success being the victorian Railways opening the Ballarat North Workshops in April 1917. [ 36 ] The Great Depression proved a far reverse for Ballarat, with the closing of many institutions and causing the worst unemployment in the city ‘s history, with over a thousand people in the dole queue. [ 24 ] : 38 The city ‘s two municipalities, Ballarat East and West Town Councils, finally amalgamated in 1921 to form the City of Ballarat. [ 24 ] : 32 While deep, the depressive disorder was besides abbreviated. The interwar period proved a period of recovery for Ballarat with a number of major infrastructure projects well afoot including a modern sewer system. In 1930, Ballarat Airport was established. By 1931, Ballarat ‘s economy and population was recovering strongly with further diversification of diligence, although in 1936 Geelong displaced it as the state ‘s second largest city. [ 37 ] During World War II an expanded Ballarat airport was the base of the RAAF Wireless Air Gunners ‘ School american samoa well as the base for USAAF Liberator bomber squadrons. In 1942, Ballarat became connected to the state electricity power system by a 66,000 kilovolt credit line. [ 31 ] Prior to this, might provision was generated locally. During World War II, Ballarat was the location of RAAF No.1 Inland Aircraft Fuel Depot ( IAFD ), completed in 1942 in the defense of Australia against a japanese invasion and decommissioned on 29 August 1944. normally consisting of four tanks, 31 fuel depots were built across Australia for the storage and provision of aircraft fuel for the RAAF and the US Army Air Forces at a total cost of £900,000 ( $ 1,800,000 ). [ 38 ] In the post-war era, Ballarat ‘s growth continued. In reception to an acute housing dearth, meaning suburban expansion occurred. An across-the-board Housing Commission of Victoria estate of the realm was built on the former Ballarat Common ( today known as Wendouree West ). [ 39 ] The estate was in the first place planned to contain over 750 prefabricate houses. While planning for the estate of the realm began in 1949, chief construction occurred between 1951 and 1962. The 1950s brought a new optimism to the city. On 17 April 1952 it was announced that Lake Wendouree was to be the venue for rowing events of the 1956 Summer Olympics, [ 24 ] and work soon began on an Olympic village in Gillies Street. A new prefabricted baron terminal substation at Norman Street Ballarat North was constructed between 1951 and 1953 by the State Electricity Commission. [ 40 ] The beginning Begonia Festival, a highly successful community celebration, was held in 1953. Elizabeth II visited on 8 March 1954. [ 24 ] The Civic Centre, Prince Alfred Hall had burned down suspiciously that year ; however a new Civic Hall was constructed and opened in March 1955. On 23 November 1956, the Olympic common mullein was carried through the city, and the trace day the rowing events were held at the lake. [ 24 ] On 2 March 1958 the Queen Mother visited Ballarat. During the following decades, the city examine increased threats to its inheritance. In 1964, the Ballarat City Council passed laws banning pillar-supported veranda in the CBD, which threatened the removal of historic shed iron veranda in the city. The by-law was met by steadfast enemy from the National Trust, which had begun campaigning to protect some of the city ‘s most historic buildings. [ 24 ] : 58 By the 1970s, Ballarat began to formally recognise its hearty heritage, and the first heritage controls were recommended to ensure its preservation. With the open of Sovereign Hill, the city made a rapid transfer to become a major cultural tourist address, visited by thousands each year. During the 1970s, a far 300 houses were constructed at Wendouree West. Private house in the adjacent suburb of Wendouree closely matched and finally eclipsed this by the mid-1960s. The suburb of greater Wendouree and Wendouree West had evolved as the suburban middle-class heart of the city. Charles, Prince of Wales visited Ballarat on 28 October 1974 during which he toured Sovereign Hill, the Ballarat College of Advanced Education ‘s new Mt Helen Campus and the White Swan Reservoir and spoke at Civic Hall. [ 41 ] Ballarat played an authoritative character in the Stolen Generation throughout the twentieth century, where the Ballarat Orphanage saw Aboriginal children who had been taken from their families. The Ballarat and District Aboriginal Co-operative ( BADAC ) was established by members of the Ballarat and zone Aboriginal community in 1979. It became a co-operative to deliver health, social, benefit and community growth programs to local Aboriginal people. In 2017, Lovett was awarded the Order of Australia Medal for services to the autochthonal community in southwest Victoria. Karen Heap and Ted Lovett were listed on the Victoria ‘s Aboriginal Honour Role both in depart for their exercise at BADAC. [ 42 ]
twenty-first hundred [edit ]
watch of cardinal Ballarat from St Peter ‘s Anglican Church The city continued to grow at the national average throughout the late twentieth century and early twenty-first hundred. In 2008 the City of Ballarat released a plan directing that growth of the city over the adjacent 30 years is to be concentrated to the west of the city kernel. The Ballarat West Growth Area Plan was approved by the city and state of matter government in 2010, planning an extensive periphery exploitation consisting of 14,000 new homes and up to 40,000 new residents including new action centres and use zones. [ 43 ] [ 44 ] The Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse final reputation, published on 15 December 2017, found that 139 people made a claim of child sexual abuse to the Diocese of Ballarat between 1980 and 2015, and 21 allege perpetrators were identified in these claims. Seventeen of the 21 alleged and convicted perpetrators were priests, which is 8.7 % of the priests who ministered during this time period. [ 45 ] About 45 victims are estimated to have committed suicide. [ 46 ]
geography [edit ]
Ballarat ‘s skyline is hidden from this opinion of the city looking east across Lake Wendouree to Mount Warrenheip . Mount Warrenheip dominating the horizon from Dawson Street, with the town hall clock tower on the right. Ballarat lies at the foothills of the Great Dividing Range in Central Western Victoria. besides known as the Central Highlands, it is named so because of its exalted position and tone down hills and terrain with a lack of any alpine mountains that are situated a few hundred kilometres NE. The city lies within a largely gently roll section of the midland volcanic plains which stretch from Creswick in the union, to Rokewood in the south, and from Lal Lal in the southeast to Pittong in the west. geologically, the area consists of alluvial sediment and volcanic flows originating from now-extinct volcanoes such as nearby Buninyong ( 750m, 2460 foot ) and Warrenheip ( 746m, 2446 foot ), which are the sphere ‘s tallest peaks. As a solution, the basin contains large areas of fertile agrarian territory. [ 47 ] Ballarat itself is situated on an alluvial river basin of the Yarrowee catchment and its tributary brook, penetrated by sub-ranges of schists composed of granites and quartz glass. Along with the visible river and creek, the catchment basin has numerous active and inactive aquifers and natural wetlands, which are used for urban water supply, department of agriculture and diversion. There are numerous densely afforest areas around Ballarat ; however due to historic wood mill and nation net there remain no old-growth forests. The major natural bodies of body of water are in the west and include the early shallow swamps of Lake Wendouree which is central to the city ‘s western suburbs and beyond Winter ‘s Swamp and the big Lake Burrumbeet wetland complex. Almost all of the other numerous bodies of water have been created artificially and include several reservoirs, the largest being the White Swan Reservoir and smaller suburban lakes such as Lake Esmond. The contiguous urban area of Ballarat covers approximately 90 km2 ( 35 sq myocardial infarction ) of the local government sphere ‘s 740 km2 ( 286 sq michigan ). [ 48 ] approximately 90 % of the urban area ‘s kingdom practice is residential and suburban. [ 48 ] From the city center this area extends approximately 6 kilometres ( 4 miles ) north to the hills around Invermay, approximately 7.5 km ( 4.7 myocardial infarction ) east to Leigh Creek in the foothills of Mount Warrenheip, approximately 7 km ( 4 michigan ) west along the plains to Lucas and approximately 8.5 km ( 5.3 myocardial infarction ) confederacy along the Yarrowee River and canadian Creek valley to the bang of Buninyong. [ 15 ] The central city is situated first gear in the valley of the Yarrowee River and surrounded by hills such that the city skyline is visible merely from the hills and the lower lie inner eastern suburbs. The pass of the Yarrowee River toward Ballarat Central becomes a stormwater drain and is wholly covered over as it flows under the CBD .
urban structure [edit ]
Map of the urban area ( grey ) and the extent of the municipal area The city is home to nationally significant inheritance structures. These include the Ballarat Botanical Gardens ( established 1857 ), [ 49 ] with the greatest concentration of populace statuary, [ 50 ] the official Prime Ministers Avenue, the longest running lyric theater build ( Her Majesty ‘s Theatre, established 1875 ), [ 51 ] the first municipal observatory, established 1886, [ 52 ] and the earliest and longest war memorial avenue ( the Avenue of Honour, established between 1917 and 1919 ). [ 53 ] Ballarat is a primarily low-rise city. The City of Ballarat defines two major bodily process Centres within the urban area – the Central Business District ( CBD ) and Wendouree with a high concentration of business, retail and community function based primarily on the Melbourne 2030 planning model and a farther 11 vicinity activity centres. [ 54 ] The tallest build in urban Ballarat is the seven-storey Henry Bolte wing of the Ballarat Base Hospital ( 1994 ). Beyond the central area, urban Ballarat extends into several suburban areas with a mixture of housing styles. prevailing styles are 19th-century villas, victorian terraces, [ 55 ] Federation homes and georgian red brick homes. Settlement patterns around Ballarat consist of small villages and state towns, some with less than a few thousand people. The Central Business District ( located in Ballarat Central ) is a large mixed-use office and retail zone bounded to the north by railroad track lines, to the west by Drummond Street, to the south to Grant street and to the east by Princes Street and spanning the floodplain of the Yarrowee River. Lydiard, Sturt Streets, Armstrong, Doveton, Dana Street and Bridge Street ( known as Bridge Mall ) along with the historic center of East Ballarat—Main Street and Bakery Hill have retained stands of commercial and civil buildings of express and national inheritance significance. The inside established suburbs were initially laid out around the key mine areas and include Ballarat East, Bakery Hill, Golden Point, Soldiers Hill, Black Hill, Brown Hill, Eureka, Canadian, Mount Pleasant, Redan, Sebastopol and Newington. The mail gold rush era has seen a boom in expansion, extending the conurbation north, confederacy and west. To the west, Ballarat has expanded West to Lucas, Alfredton, Delacombe To The North West Wendouree, Wendouree West and Miners Rest To the north it has expanded to Ballarat North, Invermay Park, [ 56 ] Invermay, Victoria [ 57 ] Invermay and Nerrina ; to the east to Warrenheip and south to Sebastopol, Mount Clear and Mount Helen with the urban area encroaching the large town of Buninyong. Wendouree is presently the only major suburban activity center with a large indoor patronize mall—Stockland Shopping Centre ( expanded in 2007 [ 58 ] ) and besides has a number of surrounding retail parks including a comic strip denounce center along Howitt Street including the big retail chain Harvey Norman. Elsewhere are small suburban hub with supermarkets such as IGA ( supermarkets ) and minor stretches of shopfronts. Unlike Melbourne, Ballarat does not have a define urban growth boundary. [ 59 ] This has put continuing pressure on the city council to approve development applications for subdivisions outside of the city fringe. In response to lobby by landholders, the Ballarat West Growth Area Plan, a major greenfield land development plan, was prepared and has approved by the city and country government to allow for aforethought fringe communities consisting of 14,000 new homes and improving to 40,000 new residents, effectively doubling the city ‘s urban area by extending the urban conurbation from Sebastopol, Delacombe and Alfredton west toward Bonshaw, Smythes Creek and Cardigan [ 43 ] [ 44 ] with a new suburb to be known as Lucas to be created. [ 60 ] New activity centres have been developed at Delacombe and Alfredton .
computer architecture [edit ]
priggish earned run average buildings Ballarat is renowned for its priggish architectural heritage. In 2003 Ballarat was the first base of two australian cities to be registered as a member of the International League of Historical Cities and in 2006 hosted the tenth World League of Historical Cities Congress. [ 61 ] The city ‘s history is a major focus of the Collaborative Research Centre in australian History, character of Federation University Australia, and is located at honest-to-god Ballarat Gaol. The bequest of the wealth generated during Ballarat ‘s gold thunder is still visible in a big number of finely stone buildings in and around the city, particularly in the Lydiard Street area. This precinct contains some of Victoria ‘s finest examples of victorian era buildings, many of which are on the victorian Heritage Register or classified by the National Trust of Australia. luminary civic buildings include the Town Hall ( 1870–72 ), the early Post Office ( 1864 ), the Ballarat Fine Art Gallery ( 1887 ), the Mechanics ‘ Institute ( 1860, 1869 ), the Queen Victoria Wards of the Ballarat Base Hospital ( 1890s ) and the Ballarat railroad track station ( 1862, 1877, 1888 ). other historic buildings include the peasant Hotel ( 1909 ), Reid ‘s Coffee Palace ( 1886 ), Craig ‘s Royal Hotel ( 1862–1890 ) and Her Majesty ‘s Theatre ( 1875 ), the oldest intact and operating lyric dramaturgy in Australia [ 51 ] and Ballarat Fire Station ( 1864, 1911 ) one of Victoria ‘s oldest fire fighting structures [ 62 ] and the jewish synagogue ( 1861 ) the oldest surviving synagogue on the australian mainland. [ 63 ]
Streetscape with the early Post Office at the rear restoration of historic buildings is encouraged including a low matter to council Heritage Loans Scheme. [ 64 ] and the prevention of demolition by negligence discouraged by council policies. [ 65 ] Since the 1970s, [ 66 ] the local council has become increasingly aware of the economic and social measure of inheritance conservation. [ 67 ] This is in blunt contrast to the 1950s and 60s when Ballarat followed Melbourne in encouraging the removal of victorian buildings, verandahs in particular. late restitution projects funded by the Ballarat include the reconstruction of meaning cast iron intertwine veranda including the Mining Exchange, Art Gallery ( 2007 ), Mechanics institute ( 2005– ) [ 68 ] on Lydiard Street and in 2010 the renovation of the Town Hall and the long fail Unicorn Hotel façade on Sturt Street. [ 69 ] Ballarat Citizens for Thoughtful Development formed in 1998 and was incorporated as Ballarat Heritage Watch in 2005 to ensure that the city ‘s architectural inheritance is given ascribable consideration in the design process. [ 70 ] The Ballarat Botanical Gardens ( established in 1858 ) are recognised as the finest example of a regional botanical gardens in Australia and are home to many inheritance listed alien tree species and feature a advanced greenhouse and horticultural center and the Prime Ministers Avenue which features bronze busts of every past australian Prime Minister. Ballarat is noteworthy for its very wide boulevards. The main street is Sturt Street and is considered one of the finest chief avenues in Australia with over 2 kilometres ( 1.2 miles ) of cardinal gardens known as the Sturt Street Gardens featuring bandstands, fountains, statues, monuments, memorials and lampposts. Ballarat is home to the largest of a solicitation of Avenues of Honour in Victoria. The 15-kilometre-long ( 9.3-mile ) Ballarat Avenue of Honour consists of a entire of approximately 4,000 trees, largely deciduous which in many parts arch wholly over the road. Each tree has a bronze brass dedicated to a soldier from the Ballarat area who enlisted during World War I. The Avenue of Honour and the Arch of Victory are on the victorian Heritage Register and are seen by approximately 20,000 visitors each class. The city besides has the greatest concentration of populace statuary in any australian city with many parks and streets featuring sculptures and statues dating from the 1860s to the present. Some of the other celebrated memorials located in the Sturt Street Gardens in the in-between of Ballarat ‘s main avenue include a bandstand situated in the heart of the city that was funded and built by the City of Ballarat Band in 1913 as a tribute to the bandsmen of the RMS Titanic, a fountain dedicated to the early explorers Burke and Wills, and those dedicated to monarchs and those who have played pivotal roles in the development of the city and its rich social framework. These include, Robert Burns, Peter Lalor, Sir Albert Coates, Harold Edward Elliott ( Pompey Elliot ), William Dunstan, King George V, Queen Victoria and more. Ballarat has an extensive array of meaning war memorials, the most late of which is the australian Ex Prisoner of War Memorial. The most outstanding memorial in the city is the Ballarat Victory Arch that spans the old western Highway on the westerly approaches of the city. The arch serves as the focal point for the Avenue of Honour. other significant individual monuments located along Sturt Street include those dedicated to the Boer War ( 1899–1901 ), the World War II ( 1939–1945 ) cenotaph, and Vietnam ( 1962–1972 ) ( located adjacent to the Arch of Victory ) .
climate [edit ]
Ballarat has a control oceanic climate ( Köppen climate classification Cfb ) [ 71 ] [ 72 ] with four distinct seasons. Its elevation, ranging between 400 and 630 metres ( 1,310 and 2,070 feet ) above sea level, causes its entail monthly temperatures to tend to be on modal 3 to 5 °C ( 5 to 9 °F ) below those of Melbourne, specially in winter. [ citation needed ] The beggarly casual maximum temperature for January is 25.1 °C ( 77 °F ), [ 73 ] while the hateful minimal is 10.9 °C ( 52 °F ). [ 73 ] In July, the beggarly maximum is 10.0 °C ( 50 °F ) ; average July minimum is 3.2 °C ( 38 °F ). Ballarat has 55.2 clear days annually. [ 73 ] The city has a good known reputation for unpredictable and extreme point weather, ranging from snow to intense heatwaves. [ 74 ] possibly the most ill-famed have of Ballarat ‘s climate is the chili winter, often accentuated by driving winds. [ 75 ] Fog is common on autumn and winter mornings but usually dissipates by mid-morning. Temperatures can dip below freezing from May to September, however a low of 0-2 C° is more common – far-flung frosts and fog are a regular batch. Snowfall typically falls on nearby Mount Buninyong and Mount Warrenheip a few times a year, but in the urban area only once or doubly, particularly during heavy winters. Snow has been known to fall heavily with several inches accumulating even in the CBD. Heavy snow seasons occurred in 1900–1902 and 1905–1907 ( with criminal record falls in 1906 ), and moderate coke seasons were recorded during the 1940s and 1980s. Snowfalls in the urban area have occurred in recent years : November 2006 ( light ), [ 76 ] July 2007 ( heavy ), [ 77 ] [ 78 ] June 2008 ( light ), [ 79 ] August 2008 ( faint ), [ 80 ] August 2014 ( moderate ) [ 81 ] and June 2016 ( light ), [ 82 ] July 2017 ( light ), June 2018 ( mince ), May 2019 ( light ), [ 83 ] and August and September 2020 ( light and heavy ). [ 84 ] Snowy fit in Sturt Gardens in 1905 The mean annual rain is 693 millimetres ( 27.3 inches ), [ 73 ] with August being the wettest calendar month ( 75 millimeter or 3.0 in ). There are an median of 198 rain-free days per year. [ 73 ] Like much of Australia, Ballarat experiences cyclic drought and heavy rain. flood of the Yarrowee catchment occurs occasionally. In 1869 a good flood of the Yarrowee River put most of the lower part of business district including Bridge and Grenville streets under body of water and caused the loss of two lives. [ 85 ] Prolonged drought ( an average annual rain with falls averaging a first gear as 400 millimeter ( 16 in ) per year since 2001 ) caused Lake Wendouree to dry up wholly for the first time in its history between 2006 and 2007. More recently higher rain levels have been recorded including 95.0 millimeter ( 3.74 in ) in the 24 hours to 9 am on 14 January 2011, [ 86 ] ending a four-day period of flooding rains across much of Victoria and Tasmania, [ 87 ] [ 88 ] [ 89 ] and contributing to the wettest January on record, with a entire of 206.0 millimeter ( 8.11 in ) of rain for the calendar month. [ 86 ] [ 90 ] The city ‘s mean daily tip run is 470 kilometer, [ 91 ] about doubly that of Melbourne, making it one of the windiest cities in Australia. This in call on causes warm summers to feel substantially cooler and near freezing winter days to have a far below zero wind chill. [ 92 ] Ballarat ‘s highest maximum recorded temperature was 44.1 °C ( 111 °F ) on 7 February 2009 during the 2009 southeast Australia heat wave. [ 93 ] This was 2.1 °C ( 3.8 °F ) above the previous read of 42.0 °C ( 108 °F ), set on 25 January 2003. The lowest-ever recorded minimal was −6.3 °C ( 21 °F ) at dawn on 19 July 2015. [ 94 ]
|Climate data for Ballarat (Ballarat Aerodrome: averages 1991–2020, records 1957–2021)|
|Record high °C (°F)||42.0
|Average high °C (°F)||26.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||18.1
|Average low °C (°F)||11.0
|Record low °C (°F)||0.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||39.7
|Average rainy days||7.7||6.9||8.5||11.7||15.8||18.2||19.9||18.6||16.8||14.5||11.8||10.5||160.9|
|Average afternoon relative humidity (%)||44||43||46||55||69||77||76||72||65||60||56||48||59|
environment [edit ]
natural reserves and commons [edit ]
Ballarat Town Common in fall 2018 While there are no national parks in Ballarat ‘s proximity, Ballarat is bordered by extensive bushland to the north, south and south west and sensitive wetlands to the east. The most cardinal park to the city is the 130 hour angle Victoria Park, with a overplus of ovals and fields, playgrounds, walking tracks and tranquillity roads. There are a count of nearby state parks and large reserves including the Enfield State Park, [ 97 ] Creswick Regional Park, Mount Warrenheip Flora Reserve, Mount Buninyong Reserve and Lake Burrumbeet ballpark. There are besides smaller parks, like Black Hill, Victoria Park, Pioneer Park and Yarowee Reserve, located within walking distance of the city center. Ballarat is unique in Australia—and internationally—for having retained much of its commons farming, which can be used by any house physician of Ballarat. Ballarat Town Common, Ballarat West Town Common and Ballarat Common are located to the west of the city. Ballarat Town Common can be accessed via Howe Street in Miners Rest and is used by frank walkers and ramblers, particularly because of its open grass fields and native wetland. Ballarat West Town Common is soon farmed on by accredited farmers. [ 98 ] The commons were reduced in size during the twentieth hundred for place development. [ 99 ] The region is home to a large koala population with protect areas established in the city ‘s outer southerly and easterly settlements. [ 100 ] [ 101 ]
pollution [edit ]
As a growing regional city there are issues including befoulment, waterway health and encroaching species. Air quality is by and large beneficial, [ 102 ] however scatter is sometimes an exit in the summer months [ 103 ] and woodsmoke from fireplaces contributes to reductions in visibility in the winter months. [ 104 ] Ballarat ‘s waterways have historically been affected by heavy pollution from both mining and industry. [ 105 ] The Ballarat Environment Network formed in 1993 to provide a voice for environmental and nature conservation issues in Ballarat and its surroundings. [ 106 ] Another large lobby group for sustainability in the city is the Ballarat Renewable Energy And Zero Emissions ( BREAZE ) formed in 2006. [ 107 ] The City of Ballarat released an environment Sustainability Strategy for the city in 2007. [ 108 ] many parts of urban Ballarat have been affected by the initiation of exotic species, peculiarly introduced vegetation. park gorse is one such problem which has prompted the formation of an official Ballarat Region Gorse Task Force in 1999 to control. [ 109 ] european rabbits [ 110 ] and red foxes [ 111 ] induce significant environmental damage in the region ‘s agribusiness areas .
economy [edit ]
The economy of Ballarat is driven by all three economic sectors, though contemporary Ballarat has emerged as a chiefly avail economy with its independent diligence being the servicing industry and its key areas of clientele including tourism, cordial reception, retail, professional services, government administration and education. secondary sector including manufacture, which had grown in the twentieth century remains an important sector. The city ‘s historic basal sector roots including mining and agriculture continue to play a role, though one that has declined since the twentieth hundred. Industries emerging this century include information engineering service sector and renewable energy .
Service industries [edit ]
As a major service center for the populous goldfields region, Ballarat has big sectors of employment in business including retail, professional services and trades a well as state and federal government branch offices for public services and health care and non-government service organisations. Collectively these industries employ more than half of the city ‘s work force and generate the bulk of the city ‘s economic activeness. Ballarat is the independent retail economy in the region. The city has several key retail districts including a pedestrian promenade known as Bridge Mall incorporate over 100 traders. There are besides indoor shopping malls including Central Square Shopping Centre and Stockland Wendouree. better known as Wendouree Village, with a large number of peculiarity stores. Major department stores include Myer, Target, Big W, Kmart, Harvey Norman and Harris Scarfe. [ 112 ] additionally each of the major supermarkets ( Coles, Woolworths, IGA and Aldi ) are represented. Servicing the fiscal sector are branches of the big four australian retail banks ( National Australia Bank, Australia and New Zealand Banking Group, Commonwealth Bank and Westpac ) along with Bendigo Bank and St. George Bank and a number of smaller mugwump fiscal services firms. Federation University Australia exports education through a big international students program and throughout Australia through distance education programs. In late years, a large engineering park, the Ballarat Technology Park with communications center has been established, with tenants including IBM and employing over 1,400 people. [ 113 ] Ballarat West Employment Zone ( BWEZ ) is located on the northwest outskirt of Ballarat, adjacent to the Ballarat Airport, existing rail infrastructure and the Ballarat Western Link Road. [ 114 ] Ballarat West Employment Zone ( BWEZ ) will become the locomotive room for jobs and economic emergence in Ballarat over the future 20 years. The project involves the development of excess Crown Land for industrial, wholesale, logistics, construction, commercial and residential uses, encouraging employment growth in Ballarat and the encompassing region. BWEZ will besides include a freight hub, secure infrastructure and access to road, rail and ports. [ 114 ] Businesses located united nations BWEZ include CHS Broadbent, Westlab Pty Ltd, Agrimac, Milestone Benchtops, Kane Transport and Office Vision .
tourism and cordial reception [edit ]
Main Street in Sovereign Hill, a bombastic alfresco aureate mine museum, is Ballarat ‘s most celebrated attraction. Ballarat attracts 2.2 million visitors a class [ 115 ] and the tourism and cordial reception industry is a A $ 480 million a year sector which accounts for around 15 % of Ballarat ‘s economy and employs approximately 2,870 people. [ 116 ] tourism in Ballarat is promoted by Ballarat Regional Tourism. [ 117 ] A significant inheritance tourism diligence has not grown substantially in Ballarat since the 1960s. Ballarat is most noteworthy for the award-winning alfresco museum known as Sovereign Hill, a cheer 1850s gold mining colonization opened in 1970. Sovereign Hill is Ballarat ‘s biggest tourism drawcard and is systematically rated among the best outdoor museums in the world and continues to expand. Sovereign Hill accounts for over half a million of Ballarat ‘s visitors and $ 40 million in tourism tax income. [ 118 ] respective businesses and attractions have capitalised on Ballarat ‘s gold mine history. They include Kryal Castle ( 1972 ), “ Gold Rush Mini Golf ” ( 2002 ) featuring the “ big miner ” ( 2006 ) one of Australia ‘s big things ( although the original proposal appeared larger and for the miner to hold the Eureka Flag ) [ 119 ] at Ballarat ‘s eastern entrance. other tourist attractions include the Eureka Centre ; The Gold Museum, Ballarat ; [ 120 ] Ballarat Botanic gardens and Lake Wendouree ; the Museum of australian Democracy ; the Ballarat Tramway Museum and Ballarat Ghost Tours and Ballarat Wildlife Park. A big number of Ballarat hotels, motels and restaurants service the tourism industry. The Ballarat Tourist Association is an industry based non-profit, membership organization representing the city ‘s tourism diligence. Ballarat honours its rich history by hosting a number of annual festivals with diachronic and cultural stress including the Ballarat Begonia Festival, Ballarat Heritage Weekend and Ballarat Beat Rockabilly Festival. [ 121 ]
Manufacturing [edit ]
According to the 2006 Australian Census, fabricate is Ballarat ‘s third largest employment sector, accounting for 14.8 % of all workers. [ 122 ]
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Ballarat attracts investment from several external manufacturers. The australian headquarter of Mars, Incorporated was established in Ballarat in 1979 with the chief Ballarat factory producing democratic confectionery including Mars bars, [ 123 ] Snickers and M & M ‘s for the australian market vitamin a well as expanding in 2013 to produce Maltesers. [ 124 ] McCain Foods Limited Australian headquarter was established in Ballarat in 1970 and the party continues to expand its operations. [ 125 ] The Ballarat North Workshops is a major manufacturer of public transportation system products with stream investment from Alstom. [ 126 ] Ballarat besides has a bombastic number of home-grown companies producing textiles, general industrial engineering, food products, brick and tiles, build up components, prefabricated house components and automotive components. Brewing was once a large-scale mathematical process, with many large businesses including the public company Phoenix Brewery, and although large-scale brew has ceased, the city retains a solid microbrewery industry. [ 127 ]
Primary sector [edit ]
Replica of the “ Welcome Nugget “, found at Ballarat, the second-largest gold nugget discovered in recorded history Though historically an crucial sector, the production of Ballarat ‘s elementary sector declined for many decades, recovering only marginally since 2006. [ 128 ] Where historically the mine diligence supported tens of thousands of workers or the majority of the population, nowadays agribusiness dominates the sector, though jointly both industries employ less than thousand people or precisely over 2 % of the City of Ballarat ‘s total work force. [ 129 ] Ballarat rose to prominence as a goldrush boomtown, though gold no longer plays a pivotal role in the economy of the city. Nevertheless, deep underground mining continues to the present date with a one main mine operating. There are still thought to be large, undiscovered gold reserves in the Ballarat region, with investigations being made by local and national companies. [ 130 ] Lihir Gold invested in Ballarat Goldfields in 2006, [ 131 ] however it downscaled its operations in 2009 due to the expense of extraction [ 132 ] before selling its venture in 2010 to Castlemaine Goldfields. [ 133 ] Along with gold, lignite ( ember ), kaolin ( clay ) and iron ore have besides been mined in the Ballarat region and nearby Lal Lal however many of the resource deposits have since been exhausted. An active quarrying industry with bombastic enterprises including Boral Limited [ 134 ] extracts and manufactures building materials from the Ballarat region, including clays, aggregates, cements, asphalts. approximately half ( 38,000 hectares or 94,000 acres ) of the municipality ‘s area is rural with optimum conditions for department of agriculture including rich volcanic soils and climate. [ 128 ] This area is used primarily for agribusiness and animal farming and generates more than $ 37 million in commodities. [ 135 ] The region supports an active potato growing industry that has supplied local food manufacturers including McCain, though more recently has been threatened by cheaper imports. [ 136 ] other boastfully crops include grains, vegetables, grapes and berries. Cattle and poultry stocks, including sheep, cows and pigs, support an active local kernel and dairy industry. The Ballarat Livestock Selling Centre is the largest cattle substitute in regional Victoria. [ 137 ] The Ballarat Agricultural and Pastoral Society formed in 1856 [ 138 ] and has run the Ballarat Show annually since 1859. [ 139 ] A $ 7.5 million [ 140 ] forestry industry is active in nearby department of state forests deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as on a belittled scale in the urban area along the canadian Valley around the suburb of Mt Clear and Mt Helen areas with ache plantations and lumbermill operations. [ 141 ]
renewable department of energy [edit ]
part of the Waubra Wind farm The Ballarat area has a quickly growing renewable energy diligence, in particular due to its abundant wind energy, attracting significant investment and generating gross for local anesthetic landholders and local councils. The area is besides a source of big geothermal energy, [ 142 ] solar baron [ 142 ] and biomass [ 143 ] [ 144 ] although to date, merely its wind, solar and hydroelectricity has been harvested commercially. All local commercially produced electricity is sent to the National Electricity Market. Wind energy is generated by local wind farms. The largest, Waubra Wind Farm, completed in 2009, is capable of producing adequate electricity to might a city 3 to 4 times the size of Ballarat. [ 145 ] early significant nearby weave farms include Mount Mercer, completed 2014, which produces adequate energy to ability 100,000 homes, equivalent to Ballarat ‘s population. [ 146 ] [ 147 ] The inaugural community-owned wind farm in Australia, the Hepburn Wind Project at Leonards Hill, completed in 2011, produces the equivalent amount of electricity used by the town of Daylesford. [ 148 ] Hydroelectricity is generated at White Swan reservoir micro hydro plant established in 2008 and producing the equivalent electricity needs of around 370 homes. [ 149 ] Ballarat Solar Park, opened in 2009 at the Airport site in Mitchell Park, is Victoria ‘s first ground-mounted, flat-plate and grid-connected photovoltaic farm. Built by Sharp Corporation for Origin Energy, it is 14,993 m2 ( 161,380 sq foot ) and generates the equivalent electricity needs of around 150 homes. [ 150 ]
Demographics [edit ]
St Peter ‘s Anglican Church, which represents the second most common religious affiliation in Ballarat Ballarat is the fourth largest inland city in Australia, and the 3rd largest victorian city behind Melbourne and Geelong. The 2016 australian national census indicated that the permanent population of the urban area was 101,588 [ 151 ] out of the City of Ballarat ‘s population of 104,355 and a sum of 45,653 households. [ 152 ] The population of Ballarat has increased moderately to 105,471 in June 2018, [ 1 ] having an annual emergence year-on-year of 1.78 % since June 2013 ( slightly faster than the national rate of 1.56 % during the lapp period ). [ 1 ] The recently accelerated increase rate has been attributed by demographers to increased commuter activity arising from surging house and domain prices in Melbourne coupled with public transport improvements between Ballarat and Melbourne. [ citation needed ] While most of the city ‘s population can trace their ancestry to Anglo-Celtic descent, 8.2 % of the population are born overseas. [ 153 ] Of them, the majority ( 4.2 % ) come from North East Europe. [ 153 ] 3.4 % talk a terminology other than English. [ 153 ] 14.4 % of the population is over the old age of 65. [ 153 ] The median age in Ballarat is 35.8 years. [ 154 ] Ballarat ‘s heathen make up is partially the consequence of the mid nineteenth Century gold rush, where people of Celtic, Anglo-Saxon and East asian descent emigrated here in the hope of landing a fortune. The average income of Ballarat, while lower than Melbourne, is higher than median for regional Victoria. [ 155 ] Ballaratians in the 2007/08 fiscal class earned on modal A $ 38,850 a year. [ 155 ] The highest earners living in the city ‘s inner suburbs with a average of $ 53,174 a year, [ 156 ] while the lower earners are centred on the city ‘s southern suburbs. [ 155 ] According to the 2006 Census, Ballarat ‘s working population is largely ashen collar 52.1 % consist of Management, Professionals, Clerical and administrative Workers and Sales Workers, while 32.9 % are blue collar working in Technicians and Trades, Labouring or Machinery Operation. [ 153 ] 56.5 % of households had access to the Internet in 2006. [ 153 ] The unemployment rate as of June 2011 was 7.8 %. [ 157 ] 50.3 % of the population have completed far department of education after senior high school school. [ 153 ] christendom is the most common religion in Ballarat. 56.3 % indicated that they were Christian while 36.9 % stated they had no religion and a far 9.1 % did not answer the doubt. Catholics ( 24.3 % ), Anglicans ( 10.6 % ) and the Uniting Church ( 6.8 % ) were the largest christian denominations. [ 158 ]
government [edit ]
Ballarat Town Hall Council Chamber in Ballarat Town Hall, Sturt Street, is the seat of local anesthetic government for the City of Ballarat. The council was created in 1994 as an amalgamation of a number of other municipalities in the region. The city is made up of 3 wards, each represented by three councillors elected once every four years by postal vote. [ 159 ] The Mayor of Ballarat, presently Daniel Moloney, is elected from these councillors by their colleagues for a annual condition. The Town Hall and annex contains some council offices, however the council ‘s administrative headquarters are located at the council owned Phoenix Building and the leased Gordon Buildings on the opposite slope of Bath Lane. [ 160 ] In state politics, Ballarat is located in the Legislative Assembly districts of Buninyong and Wendouree, with both of these seats presently held by the Australian Labor Party. [ 161 ] In federal politics, Ballarat is located in a single House of Representatives division—the Division of Ballarat. The Division of Ballarat has been a safe australian Labor Party seat since 2001, [ 162 ] and was the seat of the second Prime Minister of Australia, Alfred Deakin. Law enforcement is oversee from regional patrol headquarters at the jurisprudence complex in Dana Street with a single local patrol station operating in Buninyong. Due to an increase in crime rates and population, two extra local patrol stations were proposed in 2011 one each for the suburb of North Ballarat and Sebastopol. [ 163 ] Justice is conducted locally oversee through branches of the Supreme, County, Magistrates and Children ‘s Court of Victoria which operate out of the Ballarat courts Complex adjacent patrol headquarters in Dana Street. [ 164 ] Corrections, at least in the longer terminus are no long handled locally since the closure of the Ballarat Gaol in 1965. Offenders can be detained in 25 available cells at the patrol building complex though are normally transferred to nearby Corrections Victoria facilities such as the Hopkins Correctional Centre in Ararat. [ 165 ] Public safety and hand brake services are provided by several state funded organisations including local volunteer based organisations. Storms and flooding are handled by the State Emergency Service ( SES ) Mid West Region Headquarters at Wendouree. Bushfires are handled by the Country Fire Authority District 15 Headquarters and Grampians Region Headquarters at Wendouree [ 166 ] and urban structure fires are handled by multiple urban fire brigades operating at fire stations including the Ballarat Fire Brigade at Barkly Street Ballarat East, Ballarat City Fire Brigade at Sturt Street Ballarat Central and suburban stations including Wendouree and Sebastopol. Medical hand brake and paramedic services are provided through Ambulance Victoria and include the rural Ambulance Victoria, St. John Ambulance and Ballarat Base Hospital ambulance services. [ 167 ] City of Ballarat is creditworthy for coordinating the Municipal Emergency Management Planning Committee ( MEMPC ) which prepares the Municipal Emergency Management Plan which is actioned in conjunction with local anesthetic patrol. [ 168 ]
Media [edit ]
Newspapers [edit ]
Ballarat has two local newspapers, one owned by australian Community Media and one a private fairness. The Courier is a casual and The Ballarat Times News Group is a free weekly. The latter is distributed across most of the city on Thursday and contains news program of community events, advertisements for local anesthetic businesses, and a classified ad incision. Ballarat was the hub of Australian Community Media ‘s Victoria output and manufacture with all printed material for the state coming from the Wendouree print web site until it closed in September 2020 .
radio stations [edit ]
Radio House, Lydiard Street North. Home to 3BA and Power FM local radio stations include 3BA, Power FM and several community radio stations. There is besides a Ballarat ramify of ABC Local Radio ‘s national network .
- 102.3 FM – 3BA (local “classic hits” commercial radio station)
- 103.1 FM – Power FM 103.1 FM (local “top-40” commercial radio station)
- 99.9 FM – Voice FM 99.9 – formerly known as 3BBB (local community radio station)
- 107.9 FM – ABC Ballarat (government-funded local news, current affairs, light entertainment and talkback)
- 103.9 FM – Good News Radio 103.9 (Christian community-based radio station)
television [edit ]
television station BTV Channel 6 Ballarat commenced transmission of test patterns on 17 March 1962. nowadays Ballarat is serviced by numerous “ dislodge to air ” high Definition and Standard Definition Digital television receiver services. Two television air stations are located in the city, including WIN, WIN HD, Sky News Regional, One and Eleven ( sub-licensees of Network Ten ) and Prime7, Prime7 HD, 7Two, 7mate, and 7flix ( a sub-licensee of Seven Network ). These two stations broadcast relay services throughout regional Victoria. The city besides receives Southern Cross Nine, 9HD, 9Gem, 9Go ! and 9Life ( sub-licensees of the Nine Network ) which is based in Bendigo but operates a local office. Ballarat television receiver maintains a like schedule to the national television receiver network but maintains local commercials and regional newsworthiness program .
- WIN previously presented a 30-minute local WIN News bulletin from its studios in the city, where WIN News bulletins for Albury, Bendigo, Gippsland, Shepparton and Mildura were also broadcast. In 2015, the Ballarat studios closed with production of the regional Victorian news bulletins being relocated to Wollongong in New South Wales, where they now originate from. WIN retains reporters and camera crews for its Ballarat bulletin in the city.
- Southern Cross Nine, in conjunction with the Nine Network, airs an hour-long regional Victoria edition of Nine News from its Melbourne studios combining local, regional, national and international news, each weeknight at 6pm. The program includes local opt-outs for Ballarat and Western Victoria.
- Prime7 airs short local news and weather updates throughout the day, broadcast from its Canberra studios with an office in the city.
In addition to commercial television receiver services, Ballarat receives Government ABC ( ABC1, ABC2, ABC3, ABC News 24 ) and SBS ( SBS One and Two ) television services. On 5 May 2011, analog television receiver transmissions ceased in most areas of regional Victoria and some edge regions including Ballarat and surrounding areas. All local free-to-air television services are now broadcasting in digital transmittance entirely. This was done as part of the federal government ‘s plan for digital terrestrial television in Australia, where all analogue transmission systems are gradually turned off and replaced with modern DVB-T infection systems. Subscription television services are provided by Neighbourhood Cable, Foxtel and SelecTV .
education [edit ]
Federation University Australia ‘s SMB campus is set among heritage buildings, including the former School of Mines and Industry (left). Ballarat Mechanics ‘ Institute Ballarat has two universities, Federation University and a campus of the Australian Catholic University. once the University of Ballarat, Federation University Australia was opened in 2014. It originated as the Ballarat School of Mines, founded in 1870, and was once affiliated with the University of Melbourne. The main campus is located in Mount Helen, approximately 6 kilometres ( 3.7 miles ) southeast of the city. The university besides has campuses in the Ballarat CBD, Horsham, Berwick, Brisbane, Churchill, Ararat and Stawell. The Australian Catholic University ‘s Ballarat campus is located on Mair Street. It was once the Aquinas Training College, run by the Ballarat East Sisters of Mercy in 1909. It is ACU ‘s merely campus located outside of a capital city. Ballarat has five State Government-operated secondary schools of which Ballarat High School ( established in 1907 ) is the oldest. Ballarat High School and Mount Clear College are the entirely country school members of the Ballarat Associated Schools. The three remaining schools are Phoenix College and the two newly formed schools Mount Rowan Secondary College and Woodmans Hill Secondary College which emerged from the old Ballarat Secondary College. [ 170 ] Phoenix College was formed in 2012 as an amalgamation of Sebastopol College and Redan Primary School. [ 171 ] The city is well serviced by Catholic schools, with eight elementary schools and three secondary colleges which include the all-boys St Patrick ‘s College, [ 172 ] the all-girls Loreto College and the co-educational Damascus College, which was formed by the amalgamation of St Martin ‘s in the Pines, St Paul ‘s College and Sacred Heart College in 1995. Ballarat has three other non-government secondary schools : Ballarat Christian College, Ballarat Clarendon College and Ballarat Grammar School. The late two schools are day and board schools who provide department of education from Preschool to Year 12. Both of these co-educational schools are classified as academically excellent as the only Ballarat schools to be ranked on the tables of the top 100 victorian schools based on median VCE scores and percentage of scores of 40 and above. In 2015, Clarendon was placed at 9th best VCE results in the State, above Melbourne Grammar, Geelong College, Scotch College, Trinity Grammar School ( Victoria ), Xavier College, and Haileybury College. Ballarat Grammar was placed at 82nd, above Wesley College, Geelong Grammar and Tintern. [ 173 ] The City of Ballarat has three public libraries, the largest and most extensive of which is the City of Ballarat Library, run by the Central Highlands Regional Library Corporation and located on Doveton Street North. [ 174 ] Another library service is provided by the Ballarat Mechanics ‘ Institute in Sturt Street, which is the oldest library in the city and a significant inheritance site ; it contains a collection of historic, archival and rare reference material adenine well as more general books .
Arts and culture [edit ]
The Ballarat Fine Art Gallery houses one of Australia ‘s oldest and most extensive collections of early australian work. It is considered to have the best australian solicitation outside any capital city in Australia. Federation University Australia operates the Post Office Gallery in the Wardell designed erstwhile Post Office on the corner of Sturt and Lydiard Streets. [ 175 ]
Events and festivals [edit ]
Ballarat is home to many annual festivals and events that attract thousands of visitors. The oldest big annual consequence is the Ballarat Agricultural Show ( since 1859 ), presently held at the Ballarat Showgrounds and has attracted attendances of up to 30,000 and is an official public vacation for residents of the city. [ 176 ] [ 177 ] Lake Wendouree is featured in many including the biggest and most outstanding is the Begonia Festival ( held per annum since 1953 ). [ 178 ] SpringFest ( held per annum since 2001 ) attracts more than 15,000 people from around Victoria [ 179 ] [ 180 ] and features market stalls and activities around the lake .
annual Agricultural Society Show at Ballarat Showgrounds, Wendouree The controversial Ballarat Swap Meet ( once the Super Southern Swap Meet and held annually since 1989 ) attracts 30,000 visitors a year. [ 181 ] Ballarat Heritage Weekend ( held per annum since 2006 ) celebrates the city ‘s inheritance with activities such as historic vehicles and displays in and around the CBD and has attracted a many as 14,500 visitors a year from around Victoria. [ 182 ] [ 183 ] [ 184 ] The Ballarat Beer Festival at the City Oval ( since 2012 ) has attracted more than 4,000 visitors. [ 185 ] The Ballarat Airport Open Day ( Ballarat ‘s unofficial air travel show, held per annum since 2009 ) besides attracts thousands. [ 186 ] early minor cultural festivals include the Ballarat Writers Festival, Ballarat International Foto Biennale and the Goldfields Music Festival .
entertainment [edit ]
Her Majesty ‘s Theatre, built in 1875 Ballarat has a bouncy and well established theatrical community with several local ensembles ampere well as a total of large performing arts venues. major performing arts venues include the 900 capacity Her Majesty ‘s Theatre, the Wendouree Centre for Performing Arts, Mary ‘s Mount Theatre and the Post Office Box Theatre. The Ballarat Civic Hall is a bombastic public build constructed in 1958 as a general aim venue. Its bare classical music blueprint was heavily criticised during its plan, however it has gained some cultural meaning to the city with its erectile spaces holding many significant events over the years. Civic Hall was closed in 2002 and populace coerce forced the council to redevelop it in 2018 [ 187 ] as a modern acting arts and exposition center. The refurbish build is a mod interpretation of its original 1950s built shape and features a 1000 capacity main hall capable of use for concerts, meetings and civil events. Ballarat has its own symphony orchestra orchestra, the Ballarat Symphony Orchestra which was formed in 1987. Some noteworthy theater organisations in Ballarat include BLOC ( Ballarat Light Opera Company ) founded in 1959. [ 188 ] Ballarat is besides the home to Australia ‘s oldest and largest annual perform arts eisteddfod. The Royal South Street Eisteddfod is an across-the-board acting arts festival and rival consequence that is conducted over twelve weeks per annum. [ 189 ] In the 1970s the Ballarat urban area contained no less than 60 hotels. The initiation of gaming machines in the early 1990s has brought about meaning change in the city entertainment precincts. By 2006 at least 20 hotels had closed and some of those that remain have been redeveloped as dining and/or gaming venues. Gaming machines have brought significant tax income to the remaining hotels, sports and social clubs which has enabled many to expand and modernise. The city has several dance clubs a well as a highly active live music and jazz setting. Hotels are popular meet places for young people. The city has many fine restaurants, wine bars and eateries a good as themed restaurants. A large film complex consist of several theatres is located behind the façade of the old Regent film in the heart of the city. Dance parties are popular within the Ballarat area ; BTR is an organization founded in 2006 that has begun hosting dance events in Ballarat .
cultural depictions [edit ]
Ballarat has inspired many ocular artists. Eugene von Guerard documented the city ‘s establishment as a gold dig settlement, while Albert Henry Fullwood and Knut Bull depicted the city ‘s boom era streetscapes. [ 190 ] [ 191 ] Ballarat features prominently in literature and fabrication, including “ The Boscombe Valley Mystery “, a short narrative from Arthur Conan Doyle ‘s The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes ( 1891 ) ; King Billy of Ballarat and Other Stories ( 1892 ) by Morley Roberts ; The Fortunes of Richard Mahony ( 1917 ) by Henry Handel Richardson ; Murder on the Ballarat Train ( 1993 ) by Kerry Greenwood ; and Illywhacker ( 1985 ) by Peter Carey. Ballarat is besides a democratic filming location. [ 192 ] Australia ‘s second base honest-to-god have film, Eureka Stockade ( 1907 ), is the inaugural in a argumentation of films about the historic Ballarat consequence. The city makes cameos in Dogs in Space ( 1986 ), My Brother Jack ( 2001 ), Ned Kelly ( 2003 ) and The Writer ( 2005 ). [ 193 ] The television receiver series The Doctor Blake Mysteries ( 2012–2017 ) is set in Ballarat and besides by and large shot there. [ 194 ] [ 195 ] The series was picked by the Seven Network, which proposes to make several telemovies without the Blake character, picking up the floor line after his death, leaving his widow Jean. [ 196 ] [ 197 ] Two ships of the Royal Australian Navy have been named HMAS Ballarat after the city, the corvette HMAS Ballarat ( J184 ) and the frigate HMAS Ballarat ( FFH 155 ) .
sport and diversion [edit ]
australian rules football is the most popular spectator pump and engagement sports in Ballarat. It has its own dedicate stadium, Eureka Stadium, which serves as a venue of the australian Football League ( AFL ), equally good as the home grate of the semi-professional North Ballarat Roosters, which once competed in the victorian Football League ( VFL ). The Ballarat Football League, established in 1893, features six local teams, including the Ballarat Football Club, which was founded in 1860 and remains one of the world ‘s oldest football clubs. early Ballarat-based teams compete in the regional Central Highlands Football League. Cricket is Ballarat ‘s second most-popular sport. It has three external standard cricket ovals, including Eastern Oval, which was one of the host venues of the 1992 Cricket World Cup. The Ballarat Cricket Association is the city ‘s rationale cricket competition. soccer is besides popular in Ballarat. Based at Morshead Park Stadium, [ 198 ] the semi-professional Ballarat City FC competes in the National Premier League, the third tier competition of australian soccer. Melbourne ‘s western United FC plays four A-League matches per year at Eureka Stadium. [ 199 ] Basketball is played in Ballarat with the Ballarat Sports Events Centre hosting South East Australian Basketball League matches involving the Ballarat Miners and Ballarat Rush. Netball is similarly popular, with many netball clubs affiliated with local anesthetic australian rules clubs. Athletics is and has historically been very popular with 4 local clubs competing at the BRAC [ 200 ] ( Ballarat Regional Athletics Centre ) located at the Llanberis Athletics Track in Golden Point, 5 minutes from the CBD. The city features a rich and decorate athletics history with Australia ‘s most successful track and field athlete ( Jared Tallent – Racewalker ), and many other Olympians ( Steve Moneghetti, Greg Smith ( Paralympian ) ) having been born in Ballarat .
Rowing and kayak is centred on Lake Wendouree, which hosts the victorian Schools Rowing Championships vitamin a well as the annual “ Head of the Lake ” rowing regatta. The city hosted rowing events for the 1956 Summer Olympic Games. Horse rush and greyhound rush are besides democratic, with dedicated facilities. The Ballarat Turf Club schedules around 28 race meetings a year including the Ballarat Cup meet in mid-november. [ 201 ] Athletics facilities include an external standard athletics track at Golden Point. Swimming and water mutant is facilitated at two Olympic-sized pools deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as an indoor 25-metre ( 82-foot ) competition shortstop course pool. The main facility is the Ballarat Aquatic Centre located in Lake Gardens. Baseball was first organised in Australia at Ballarat in 1857, [ 202 ] and three local teams compete in the Geelong Baseball Association. golf is played at four main venues which include the Ballarat Golf Course in Alfredton, home to the Ballarat Golf Club. [ 203 ] The Ballarat Roller Derby League was formed in 2008, and held their first pit in 2009. They have two teams who compete in local events, and a blend travel team, the Rat Pack, who compete in interleague roller bowler hat competitions. [ 204 ] Ballarat, along with other cities in regional Victoria, will host the 2026 Commonwealth Games .
infrastructure [edit ]
Health [edit ]
Ballarat has two major hospitals. The populace health services are managed by Ballarat Health Services [ 205 ] including the Ballarat Base which services the entire area and the Queen Elizabeth Centre for aged manage on Ascot Street Sth. The St John of God Health Care center besides on Drummond Street Nth, established in 1915 is presently the largest private hospital in regional Victoria. [ 206 ] The Ballarat Regional Integrated Cancer Centre ( BRICC ) on the corner of Drummond and Sturt Street includes a numeral of facilities focused on cancer treatment. [ 207 ] The Heart Foundation did a study in 2014 that Ballarat had the highest level of physical inactiveness ( 85.3 per penny ) in Australia and that 32.9 per penny of residents were deemed corpulent. [ 208 ]
Utilities [edit ]
Ballarat ‘s residents are serviced by a wide range of populace utilities including water, boast and electricity, telephone and data communications supplied, oversee and regulated by state based authorities and secret enterprise and local council. Water supply equally well as sewage collection and administration are provided by Central Highlands Water. [ 209 ] Drinking water is sourced from a network reservoirs all located in the highlands to the east, however the majority is sourced from two main reservoirs—Lal Lal and White Swan. The Lal Lal Reservoir ( built in 1970 [ 210 ] with a capacity of 59,500 megalitres ( 1.57×1010 US gallons ) [ 211 ] ) is Ballarat ‘s largest water catchment account for approximately two-thirds of the city ‘s water usage. [ 212 ] The White Swan reservoir ( built in 1952 [ 210 ] with a 14,100 Ml ( 3.7×109 US gal ) capacitance ) supplies most of the remainder. [ 211 ] Since May 2008, the White Swan has been topped up by water system from Bendigo ‘s Sandhurst Reservoir through the Goldfields Superpipe with water originally sourced from the Goulburn River organization. [ 213 ] Kirks Reservoir ( built between 1860 and 1862 with a capacity of 400 Ml ( 110,000,000 US gal ) ) and Gong Gong Reservoir ( built in 1877 at Gong Gong, Victoria [ 214 ] with a capacity of 1,902 Ml ( 502,000,000 US gal ) [ 211 ] ) are historic main water system supplies now maintained for emergency use. [ 215 ] other reservoirs supplying Ballarat include Moorabool reservoir ( located in Bolwarrah, Victoria [ 216 ] with a capacitance of 6,738 Ml ( 1.780×109 US gallon ) ), Wilson ‘s Reservoir ( located in the Wombat State Forest with a capability of 1,013 Ml ( 268,000,000 US gal ) ), Beales reservoir ( construct 1863 [ 217 ] located at Wallace with a capacity of 415 Ml ( 110,000,000 US gal ) ) and Pincotts reservoir ( built 1867 [ 217 ] located at Leigh Creek, Victoria [ 218 ] with a capacity of 218 Ml ( 58,000,000 US gal ) ). [ 219 ] Sewage is managed by two plants—the Ballarat North Wastewater Treatment Plant and the Ballarat South Waste Water Treatment Plant. [ 220 ] residential electricity is supplied by victorian electricity distributor Powercor, while residential natural gas is supplied by AGL Energy. telephone services are provided via the Doveton Street ( BRAT ) telephone rally [ 221 ] which was originally built by the australian Telecommunications Commission ( now known as Telstra ) who remains its owner, though Optus now besides operates services from this facility. The city ‘s cellular network presently uses Universal Mobile Telecommunications System ( UMTS ). Telstra has provided mobile telecommunications to Ballarat since 2003 ( initially as CDMA ). Optus provided competition with its entrance to the market in 2003 along with significant service upgrades in 2004 [ 222 ] followed by Vodafone in mid-2009. [ 223 ] Data communications are provided by respective companies. Telstra was the first gear company to provide dial-up Internet access via the Ballarat exchange, however the inaugural net for broadband Internet access available in the city was a hybrid ocular fiber cable and coaxial cable built by Neighbourhood Cable in 2001. [ 224 ] Since then, Telstra and Optus have entered the Ballarat grocery store, providing Asymmetric digital subscriber line ( ADSL ) services for residential Internet access from four main exchanges—Ballarat, Wendouree ( Howitt Street ), Sebastopol ( Skipton Street ) and Alfredton ( Cuthberts Road ). These companies besides provide mobile data access Evolved HSPA and since deep 2011 3GPP long Term Evolution ( 4G ). Ballarat ‘s rollout of the National Broadband Network ( NBN ) is seen as vital for the city ‘s growing IT diligence. [ 225 ] [ 226 ] During Ballarat ‘s beginning stage NBN rollout in 2012, 17,800 homes will be immediately connected to the network via ocular fiber cable. [ 227 ]
fare [edit ]
The centrifugal vehicle is the main shape of transport in Ballarat. A network of state highways radiate from Ballarat and the western Freeway ( A8 ) double carriageway bypasses the central city to the north of the urban area, providing a direct road connection to Melbourne ( approximately 90 minutes ), westbound to Ararat ( approximately 75 minutes ) and Horsham. Five expressway interchanges service the urban area, East Ballarat ( one-half rhombus ) interchange at Victoria Street ( C805 ) ; Brown Hill interchange ( full diamond ) at Daylesford-Ballarat Road ( C292 ), Creswick Road interchange ( wide rhombus ) at Wendouree ( A300 ) ; the Mount Rowan interchange ( half baseball diamond ) at Gillies Road, Wendouree ( C307 ) and the Mitchell Park interchange ( fully diamond ) at Howe Street ( C287 ). The Midland Highway is a dual carriageway which runs north along Creswick Road to the western Freeway interchange but becomes a single carriageway north of Ballarat to Creswick ( approximately 25 minutes ) and runs south as the double carriageway of Skipton Road to Magpie before becoming a single carriageway to Geelong ( approximately 87 minutes ). The Glenelg Highway connects immediately to Mount Gambier and the Sunraysia Highway west of Ballarat which connects immediately to Mildura. Sturt Street and Victoria Street, both dual carriageways carry the majority of the east-west CBD traffic, while Mair Street is planned to become a four lane dual carriageway to relieve pressure on these chief streets. [ 228 ] other dual carriageway main roads in the west include Howitt Street and Gillies Street. [ 229 ] The busiest roads by far are located in the west and south at Albert Street in Redan, Sturt Street in Newington and Gillies Street in Lake Gardens which carry 22,400, 22,000 and 21,500 vehicles per sidereal day respectively and all have 4 traffic lanes. [ 229 ]
rail [edit ]
Ballarat is a major railing transport hub in Victoria. Situated at the articulation of the Ballarat credit line, Ararat line and Mildura lines, it presently has several connections for both passenger rail services and freight rail. The city has two passenger railway stations, the hub of Ballarat railway post and suburban Wendouree railway station. [ 230 ] From Ballarat station, V/Line operates VLocity trains to Melbourne, west to Ararat and north to Maryborough. Since the controversial removal of “ flagship ” express services in 2011, consecutive timetable changes have slowed flower hour services to Southern Cross, with the current travel taking a minimal of 73 minutes. [ 231 ] [ 232 ] Patronage however has continued to grow. [ 233 ] [ 234 ] The Regional Rail Link project was built in 2015 to separate Ballarat trains from Melbourne ‘s suburban rail network. [ 235 ] Interurban services ( Ballarat-Melbourne ) now run half-hourly during weekday extremum and hourly during weekday non-peak and on weekends from Ballarat station. A doubly casual ( thrice daily on weekdays ) ( 57 minute ) service connects Ballarat to Ararat ( stopping at Beaufort ) while there is a ( 53 minute ) service to and from Maryborough ( stopping at Creswick, Clunes, and Talbot ) once a day ( doubly a day on weekdays ) each way. [ 236 ] Victoria ‘s electronic ticket system, Myki, was implemented on rail services between Wendouree and Melbourne on 24 July 2013. [ 237 ] Ballarat is connected to Geelong by rail via the Geelong-Ballarat railroad track line, which presently operates only for freight .
bus [edit ]
CDC Ballarat operates the bus network covering the city center, Ballarat and Wendouree stations, and most wall suburbs, contracted by Public Transport Victoria. [ 238 ]
streetcar [edit ]
A tourist streetcar on Wendouree Parade The once across-the-board Ballarat tramway network operated between 1887 and 1971 with a small incision of remaining track being utilised as a tourist and museum tramline. [ 239 ] There have been proposals to extend the network, particularly as a major tourist facility but besides to connect it to the railways and return it as a feasible component of the Ballarat populace transportation arrangement, including a potent anteroom in 2001–2002, [ 240 ] [ 241 ] [ 242 ] [ 243 ] 2010–11 and 2014, [ 244 ] however Ballarat City Council and federal member of parliament have dismissed recent proposals. [ 245 ] [ 246 ] [ 247 ]
airport [edit ]
Ballarat Airport located 8 kilometer ( 5 nautical mile ) northwest of the CBD consists of two sealed runways ( each approximately 1,400 m ( 4,600 foot ) long and 30 meter ( 98 foot ) wide ) vitamin a well as across-the-board sealed aprons, nox fall and NDB navaid. Master Plans for the Airport were completed in 2005 and subsequently 2013. [ 248 ] The report made a serial of recommendations and forecasts that included prolongation, widening and strengthening of the existing main runway, consideration for expansion of the passenger terminal, recommendations for future use of aprons, and development of future structures supporting larger aircraft that would result from the prognosis increased frequent use. In 2020, initial Federal support was provided to enable the re-building and re-instatement of the chief north–south runway to 1900m ( 6233 feet ) .
cycling and walk [edit ]
Ballarat has a farseeing history of cycle as a shape of transport and refreshment. The stream cycle network continues to grow and consists of several tag on-road routes and 50 kilometres ( 31 miles ) of segregated bicycle facilities including several main routes : the Ballarat–Skipton Rail Trail and the Yarrowee River Trail with connections to the Gong Gong Reservoir. [ 214 ] Buningyong Trail, Sebastopol Trail, and the Lake Wendouree shared path. [ 249 ] The Ballarat Bicycle Users Group provides advocacy for the growing number of cyclists in the city. [ 250 ] The popularity of cycle in Ballarat is besides demonstrated by the large number of spectators and participants drawn to cycling sporting events held in the city. [ 251 ]
crime [edit ]
In 2014, the city was one of a number of australian regional centres examined by an ABC Four Corners composition on the use of methamphetamine, along with Devonport, Burnie, Castlemaine and St Arnaud. [ 252 ] [ 253 ]
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
bibliography [edit ]
- Bate, Weston. Lucky City: The First Generation of Ballarat 1851–1901 (1978)
- Bate, Weston. Life After Gold: Twentieth-Century Ballarat Melbourne University Press (1993)
- Carboni, Raffaello. The Eureka Stockade (1980) first published (1855)
- Goodman, David. Gold Seeking: Victorian and California in the 1850s (1994)
- Jacobs, Wendy. Ballarat: A Guide to Buildings and Areas 1851–1940 Jacob Lewis Vines Conservation Architects and Planners (1981)
- Lynch, John. The Story of the Eureka Stockade: Epic Days in the early fifties at Ballarat, (1947?)
- Flett, James. The History of Gold Discovery in Victoria
- Molony, John. Eureka, (1984)
- Molony, John. By Wendouree, (2010)
- Serle, Geoffrey. The Golden Age: A History of the Colony of Victoria, 1851–1860, (1963)
- Freund, Peter, with Val Sarah. Her Maj: A History of Her Majesty’s Theatre, Ballarat (2007)
- Ballarat City Council
- Victorian Heritage Register, Heritage Victoria